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central (haversian) canal
contains blood vessels and nerves
perforating (volkmann's) canal
blood vessels & nerves from the periosteum penetrate the compact bone through these transverse canals. the vessels and nerves of these canals connect with those of the medullary cavity, periosteum, and central canal
little lakes. one area where chondrocytes are found in extracellular matrix.
classes of joints by function
- 1. synarthrosis
- 2. diarthrosis
- 3. amphiarthrosis
synarthrosis joint (syn = together)
freely movable joint. all of these joints are synovial joints. they have a variety of shapes and permit several different types of movements.
amphiarthrosis (amphi = on both sides)
slightly movable joint
classes of joints by structure
- 1. fibrous
- 2. cartilaginous
- 3. synovial
presence of a space called a synovial cavity or joint cavity between articulating bones. classified as freely movable. bones at joint are covered by a layer of hyaline cartilage (articular cartilage - smooth, slippery surface but does not bind them together)
articular capsule (joint capsule)
surrounds synovial joint, encloses the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones. composed of two layers, an outer fibrous membrane and an inner synovial membrane.
fibrous membrane - dense irregular connective tissue that attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones.
fibers of some fibrous membranes arranged as parallel bundles of dense regular connective tissue that are highly adapted for resisting strains. the strength of these fiber bundles is one of the principal mechanical factors that hold bones close together in synovial joint.
attaches muscle to bone. made of dense regular connective tissue.
point of insertion
where movement occurs
lack a synovial cavity.and the articulating bones are held very closely together by dense irregular connective tissue. these joints permit little or no movement
3 types of fibrous joints
- 1. sutures
- 2. syndesmoses
- 3. interosseous membranes
syndesmoses joint (syndesmo = band or ligament)
fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than a suture. the dense irregular connective tissue is typically arranged as a bundle (ligament). it permits slight movement. (ie anterior tibiofibular ligament)
substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones and permits slight movement (amphiarthrosis). there are two principal interosseous membrane joints in the human body. ie radius & ulna in the forearm and tibia & fibula in leg.
movement of relatively flat bone surfaces back-and-forth and side-to-side over one another; little change in angle between bones.
types of movement in synovial joints
- 1. flexion
- 2. lateral flexion
- 3. extension
- 4. hyperextension
- 5. abduction
- 6. adduction
- 7. circumduction
- 6. rotation
- 7. special (elevation, depression, protraction, retraction,inversion, eversion, dorsiflexion, plantar flexion, supination, pronation, opposition)
increase or decrease in angle between bones
decrease in angle between bones. decrease in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane.
movement of trunk in frontal plane
increase in angle between articulating bones, usually in sagittal plane
extension beyond anatomical position
movement of bone away from midline, usually in frontal plane
movement of bone toward midline, usually in frontal plane
flexion, abduction, extension, adduction, and rotation in succession (or in the opposite order); distal end of body part moves in circle.
movement of the bone around longitudinal axis; in limbs, may be medial (toward midline) or lateral (away from midline).
are connected entirely by cartilage. allow more movement than fibrous joint. (ie pubic symphysis)