Nutrition in Plants

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Nutrition in Plants
2014-12-01 16:22:06
BIO 181 Final
Gettin' nutritional up in this biz
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  1. Life Requirements include...
    • Mechanisms for gas exchange
    • Source of Nutrients
    • Distributions of Nutrients
    • Transport
    • Elimination of Waste
  2. Metabolism
    all of the chemical processes of an organism
  3. Anabolism
    needs energy and assembles simple to complex
  4. Catabolism
    breaks down complex to simple and may release energy (digestion)
  5. Nutrition
    processes by which an organism takes in and utilizes food substances
  6. Diffusion
    NET movement of a substance from an area of higher to lower concentration
  7. Osmosis
    Diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
  8. Dialysis
    Diffusion of a substance other than water across a semipermeable membrane
  9. Why is diffusion alone impractical in land plants?
    Takes too long to transport energy from the bottom to top of plant
  10. A vascular plant consists of
    • Root System
    • Shoot System
  11. Root System
    • Anchors the plant
    • Used to absorb water and ions
  12. Shoot system
    • consists of supporting stems, photosynthetic leaves, and reproductive flowers
    • Repetitive units consist of internode, node, leaf, and axillary bud
  13. Three Types of Organs in a Plant Body
    • Stem
    • Leaves
    • Roots
  14. Stem in Plant Body
    produce leaves and branches and bear the reproductive structures
  15. Leaves in Plant Body
    Flattened structures often specialized for photosynthesis
  16. Roots
    provide anchorage in the soil and foster efficient uptake of water and minerals
  17. Mitosis
    • simple cell division
    • divides mother cells
  18. Meristems
    allow for growth to drive roots into soil, height, and girth of shoots
  19. Differentiation
    allows for development of specialized cells for specific functions
  20. Three Types of Plant Tissue
    • Dermal
    • Ground
    • Vascular
  21. Dermal Plant Tissue
    on external surfaces that serves a protective function
  22. Ground Plant Tissue
    Forms several different internal tissue types and can participate in photosynthesis, serve a storage function, or provide structural support
  23. Vascular Plant Tissue
    Conducts water and nutrients
  24. 3 Types of Ground Tissue
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • Sclerenchyma
  25. Parenchyma Ground Tissue
    Function in storage, photosynthesis, and secretion
  26. Collenchyma/Sclerenchyma
    Provide support and protection
  27. Xylem
    • Principal water-conducting tissue
    • Contains vessels and Tracheids
  28. Vessels in Xylem
    • continuous tubes of dead cylindrical cells arranged end-to-end
    • tend to be shorter and wider than tracheids
  29. Tracheids in Xylem
    Dead cells that taper at the end and overlap one another
  30. Macronutrients include:
    • nitrogen
    • potassium
    • calcium
    • magnesium
    • phosphorus
    • sulfur
  31. Micronutrients in Plants
    • Chlorine
    • Iron
    • Manganese
    • Boron
    • Zinc
    • Sodium
    • Copper
    • Molybdenum
    • Nickel
  32. Deficiency symptoms in plants include:
    • Failure to reproduce
    • Tissue Death
    • Changes in Leaf color
    • Chlorosis: yellowing of leaves
  33. Organic Fertilizaer
    • most minerals are bound to organic molecules and released slowly
    • Ex: manure, compost
  34. Inorganic Fertilizer
    inorganic materials are immediately useful but can be leached away
  35. Important Macronutrients in Plants
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium (K)
  36. Nitrogen Fixation
    • Nitrogen in the form of ammonia, ammonium, or nitrate ions
    • Large amounts required for synthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, alkaloids, and others
  37. Passive Mechanism for Plants
    depend on prey to fall or wander into trap
  38. Active Mechanism for Plants
    traps stimulated by touch