Nutrition in Animals

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Author:
chanchan27104
ID:
290367
Filename:
Nutrition in Animals
Updated:
2014-12-01 16:33:44
Tags:
biology
Folders:
BIO 181 Final
Description:
Nutritional Stuff for the Rest of Us
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  1. Nutrition
    process of consuming and using food and nutrients
  2. Nutrient
    any substance consumed by an animal that is needed for survival, growth, development, tissue repair, or reproduction
  3. Energy
    the capacity to do work
  4. Two Primary Functions of Ingestion
    • Source of Energy 
    • Source of Raw Material
  5. Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
    Minimal Amount of energy consumed under defined resting conditions
  6. Five Categories of Organic Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Vitamins
  7. Carbohydrates
    • Simple and Complex Sugars
    • 4 kcal/g
    • Energy source and Strage
    • Stored as glycogen in animals, starch in plants
    • Macronutrient
  8. Proteins
    • 20 amino acids - 8-9 essential
    • All 20 needed to make protein
    • 4 kcal/g
  9. Complete Protein Sources
    • has all essential amino acids
    • Ex: Dairy, meats, etc
  10. Incomplete Protein Sources
    • lacks one or more essential amino acids
    • Ex: Plant Sources
  11. Lipids
    • 95% neutral fats, 5% sterols and phospholipids
    • 9 kcal/g
    • Energy source and storage; insulation
    • Storage in animals
    • Macronutrient
  12. Importance of Lipids in Diet
    • Linoleic Acid is essential
    • Fat Soluble Vitamins (A, D, E, K) are absorbed properly only if fats in diet
  13. Vitamins
    • Organic, Coenzymes
    • Not a direct source of energy
    • Essential
    • Micronutrients
  14. 2 Classes of Vitamins
    • Fat Soluble - stored in body (A, D, E, K)
    • Water Soluble - not stored (B complex, C)
  15. Minerals
    • Inorganic, cofactors and structural
    • Not a direct source of energy
    • Ex: Iron, Calcium, Zinc
    • All essential
    • Micronutrients: Fe, I, Zn
    • Macronutrients: Ca, P, N
  16. Acquisition of Nutrients
    • Source
    • Gathered or taken in - ingestion
    • Processed through digestion
    • Transported/distributed - absorption
    • Used by cells - assimilation
    • Elimination/egestion  of non-digested or solid waste
  17. Feeding Mechanisms
    • Absorptive Feeders
    • Suspension Feeders
    • Substrate Feeders
    • Fluid Feeders
    • Bulk Feeders

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