Ch 1 & 2 Quiz A & P

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Ch 1 & 2 Quiz A & P
2014-12-01 18:16:29
Anatomy Physiology Parker
Anatomy and Physiology
Chapter 1 and chapter 2 quiz
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  1. the chemicals that make up the body may be divided into two major categories: inorganic and organic.
    Chemical level of organization
  2. The smallest living units of structure and fuctions.  The human body consists of more than 200 diffeent types of these.  each type of cell is made of chemmicals and carries out specific chemical reactions.
    Cellular levels of organization
  3. a group of cells with similar structure and fuction.
    Tissue levels of organization.
  4. Epithelial, connective, muscle, and nerve are four groups of what?
  5. a groups of tissues precisely arranged so as to accomplsh specific functions.  examples of this are the kidneys, individual bones, the liver, lungs, and stomach.
    Organ levels of organization
  6. a group of organis that all contribute to a particular function.  examples are the urinary sysem, digestive system, and respiratory system.
    Organ systems levels of organization
  7. The pancreas is a part of which two organ system?
    Digestive and Endocrine organ.
  8. The diaphragm is part of both the _____ and _____systems.
    Muscular and respiratory systems.
  9. The system comprises the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails).
    integumentary system
  10. the network of nerve cells and fibers that transmits nerve impulses between parts of the body.
    Nervous System
  11. controls the way your body functions. It produces hormones that travel to all parts of your body to maintain your tissues and organs.
    Endocrine system
  12. the body has 2 major cavities
    dorsal and ventral
  13. what does the dorsal cavity contain?
    • Central nervious system
    • cranial caviy
    • vertebral/or spinal cavity
  14. the membrane that line these cavites and cover the brain and spinal cord is called?
  15. what is in the ventral cavity?
    Thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity seperated by diaphargm.
  16. what are the organsin the thoracic cavity include?
    lungs and heart
  17. what are the organs in the abdominal cavity include?
    the liver, stomach, and intestines.
  18. superior
    • above, or higher
    • The heart is superior to the liver
  19. inferior
    • below or lower
    • the liver is inferior to the lungs
  20. anterior
    • toward the front
    • the chest is on the anterior side of the body
  21. posterior
    • toward the back
    • the lumbar area is posterior to the unbilical area.
  22. ventral
    • toward the front
    • the mammary area is on the ventral side of the body
  23. dorsal
    • toward the back
    • the buttocks are on the dorsal side of the body
  24. medial
    • toward the midline
    • the heart is medial to the lung
  25. lateral
    • away from the midline
    • the shoulders are lateral to the neck
  26. internal
    • within, or interior to
    • the brain is internal to the skull
  27. external
    • outside, or exterior to
    • the ribs are external to the lungs
  28. superficial
    • toward the surface
    • the skin is the most superficial organ
  29. deep
    • within, or interior to
    • the deep veins of the legs are surrounded by muscles
  30. Central
    • the main part
    • the brain is part of the central nervous system
  31. peripheral
    • extending from the main part
    • nerves in the arm are part of the peripheral nervous system.
  32. proximal
    • closer to the origin
    • the knee is proximal to the foot.
  33. distal
    • farther from the origin
    • the palm is distal to the elbow.
  34. parietal
    • pertaining to the wall of a cavity
    • the parietal pleura lines the chest cavity
  35. visceral
    • pertaining to the organs within a cavity
    • the visceral pleura covers the lungs.
  36. Frontal Section
    a plane from side to side separates the body into front and back portions.
  37. sagittal section
    a plane from from to back separates the body into right left portions. Can be uneven.
  38. midsagittal section
    creates equal right and left halves.
  39. cross-section
    a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the organ.
  40. longitudinal section
    a plane along the long axis of the organ.
  41. Transverse plane
    a plane that divides the body to superior and inferior halves.
  42. ionic bond
    • involves the loss of one or more electrons by one atom and the gain of the electron(s) by another atom(s)
    • ex: NaCl
  43. Covalent bonds
    • the sharing of electrons between atoms.
    • ex: O2
  44. Disulfide bonds
    a covalent bond formed between two atoms of sulfur, usually within the same large protein molecule.
  45. Hydrogen bonds
    does not involve the sharing or exchange of electrons, but rather results because of a property of hydrogen atoms.
  46. what is the cellular respiration equation?
    Glucose (C6H12O6) + 6O2  --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP + Heat
  47. Definition of Acids
    increase concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a water solution
  48. Definition of Bases
    a substance that decreases the concentration of H+ ions, in the case of water, has the same effect as increasing the concentration of hydroxyl ion (OH-)
  49. Carbohydrates as Organic Molecules
    source of energy in cell respiration. All carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

    Monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides
  50. Lipids as Organic Molecule
    contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. some also contain phosphorus.

    3 types: true fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
  51. Proteins as Organic Molecules
    are made of smaller subunits or building blocks called amino acids. contains elements: C, H, O2, and N. some contain sulfur which permits disulfide bonds in proteins such as insulin and antibodies.
  52. electrons
    negative charge is found outside the nucleus orbiting in what may be called an electron cloud or shell around the nucleus
  53. protons
    • positive electrical charge and is found i the nucleus or center of atom.
    • number of protons in atom gives it its atomic number.
  54. neutrons
    electrically neutral and is found in the nucleus.
  55. DNA base pairing?
    • A - T (Adenine - Thymine)
    • G - C (Guanine - Cytosine)
  56. RNA base pairing
    • A - U (Adenine - Uracil)
    • G - C (Guanine - Cytosine)