biochem exam prep 2
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biochem exam prep 2
biochem exam prep
biochem exam prep 2
aerobic conditions due to exercise or due to tumor growth activate the transcription factor HIF-1 which
perform "induced fit" when binding to Glu
The transfer of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2-phosphoglycerate was catalyzed by
There is a reaction can be catalyzed by both enyzme A (Kcat=500) and enzyme B (Kcat=50). Which has the lower catalytic capacity?
-competes for active site, binds to enzyme
-Km increased, Vmax unaffected
-Increasing the concentration of substrate can over come the effects of the inhibitor
Binds only to the ES complex to form ESB
Km reduced, Vmax reduced
binds to a different site, can bind to S or E or ES?
Km unaffected, Vmax reduced
The Michaelis-Menton equation does not apply to...
allosteric enzymatic reactions
The Michaelis constatn is
What kind of enzymatic behavior follows a sigmoidal plot of reaction velocity versus substrate concentration?
The active site of an enzyme is/contains (3 things)
-is frequently located in a cleft in the enzyme
-is the portion of the enzyme to which the substrate binds
-contains the reactive groups that catalyze the reaction
Km of an enzyme is
a measure of the affinity of the enzyme for the substrate
Enzymes can speed up the rate of a reaction because
enzymes lower the activation energy
The "lock and key" model and the "induced fit model" can be used to explain
the specificity of enzymes
The rate of reaction
relate to the degree of saturation of the catalyzing enzyme
what is the V/Vmax ratio where S=Km
An active enzyme with its associated cofactor/prosthetic group is termed a
According to the steady-state assumption
the concentration of enzyme-substrate complex remains constant with time
Ordered sequential addition looks like
a straight line with 4 lines into it? Maybe look those up
How to find Km for Lineweaver-burk plot
the X intercept is -1/km
Homotrophic effects are caused by
Heterotrophic effects are caused by
nonsubstrate molecules?? Maybe ask someone
R vs T state
R state will be most active and therefore reach high point quickest
Atp is a ------- of ATCase by----------
ATP is an allosteric activator of ATCase by competing with CTP
increases in F-2, 6 BP lead to the activation of PFK-1 is a type of
What does this reaction show?
-reductive synthesis of fatty acids
-electrons usually are provided by NADPH
Aerobic vs anerobic bodyparts
Liver is anerobic while heart is aerobic, exam 2 question 25
Using water to split something into two parts is what type of reaction?
Which group of three amino acid residues can be phosphorylated to modulate enzyme activity?
tyrosine, threonine, and serine (the alcoholic ones)
Which of the following is an example a compound that has higher phosphate transfer potential compared to ATP?
The deficiency of which of the following of which of the following vitamins may cause subdermal hemorrhaging.
Vitamin K, study what each of these does
cells need energy for
mechanical work and biosynthesis
The following reaction is a type of
substrate level phosphorylation
has a low Km and performs basal glucose transportation
Glut2 does what
is expressed in the liver to remove excess glucose from blood and in the pancreas to regulate insulin?
What contains more energy, fatty acids or simple sugars?
proteins that catalyze dephosphorylation reactions are called
The Rossmann fold is..
-found in LDH and ADH
The phosphorylation of glucose to G-6-P is a ------- reaction because------
is a endergonic reaction that takes place because it is coupled to the exergonic hydrolysis of ATP
the step that commits the cell to metabolize glucose is catalyzed by
The conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 3-phosphoglycerate is
one of the reactions of glycolysis in which ATP is produced
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate does what?
allows for recycling of NAD+
The activity of the enzyme phosphofructokinase is stimulated by...
NADH is produced at which step of glycolysis?
G3PDH catalyzed reaction
Inhibition of PFK would also likely cause what to happen in the cell?
inhibition of hexokinase
Which of the following molecules is a common fate of pyruvate in anaerobic metabolism?
Which of the following is a carrier of acyl group
whats more stable, a keto of enol form of pyruvate?
The keto form
This kinetic stability of activated carriers allows ------ to control the flow of free energy and reducing power in metabolism
Sticking two things together is a type of
ligation reaction, exam 2 question 49
during glycolysis, how many pyruvate molecules are produced per glucose
During yeast fermentation originated from one molecule of glucose, how many molecules of CO2 is produced?
Breaking two things apart not using water is an example of a
which of the following is/are correct about protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibitor (3 things)
1) inhibitor interact with Pka through electro static interactions
2) inhibitor interact with PKA through hydrophobic interaction
3) No phosphate transfer from ATP to inhibitor
Which of the following molecule is the least efficient as an energy source (contains the least energy)
because it has no hydrogen
In general which of the following control of enzyme response the fastest
allosteric control is faster than covalent modification which is faster than transcriptional control
What molecules are active carriers to electrons?
NAD+ and FAD+, look up structures (exam 2 question 56)
The process to produce chymotrypsin is an example of
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate is
the process result in sore muscles after exercise
During glycolysis, how many NADH will be produced per glucose?
-Km is 50x greater than that of hexokinase
-it functions when glucose is abundant
When PFK is inhibited, what happens?
G-6-P increases to shut off hexokinase
The breakdown of F-1,6-BP to GAP and DHAP was catalyzed by
The last ATP production in glycolysis is catalyzed by
look at the last page of exam 2