biochem 012 DNA and protein synthesis part 2(watson, crick, griffith, chargoff's rule, translation,

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mikepl103
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290390
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biochem 012 DNA and protein synthesis part 2(watson, crick, griffith, chargoff's rule, translation,
Updated:
2014-12-01 21:46:22
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biochem 012 DNA protein synthesis part watson crick griffith chargoff rule translation ribosomes mRNA 24
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biochem 012 DNA and protein synthesis part 2(watson, crick, griffith, chargoff's rule, translation, ribosomes, mRNA) #24
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  1. explain how nucleotide excision repair works
    In nucleotide excision repair, a nuclease cuts out damaged stretches of DNA. DNA polymerase then replaces the excised DNA and DNA ligase seals this newly synthesized DNA.
  2. explain why DNA loses nucleotides after each successive replication
  3. what is DNA polymerase III?
    DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is the primary enzyme complex involved in prokaryotic DNAreplication.
  4. what are telomeres?
    Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules have at their ends nucleotidesequences called telomeres
  5. germ cells utilize _______ to prevent the degradation of important genes
    telomerase
  6. what is the nucleoid?
    In a bacterium, the DNA is “supercoiled” and found in a region of the cellcalled the nucleoid
  7. what is chromatin?
    Chromatin is a complex of DNA and protein, and is found in the nucleus ofeukaryotic cells
  8. what are histones?
    Histones are proteins that are responsible for the first level of DNA packingin chromatin
  9. Chromatin is organized into fibers. Describe the 10 nm fiber--the lowest level of chromatin organization.
    • • DNA winds around histones to form nucleosome “beads”
    • • Nucleosomes are strung together like beads on a string by linker DNA
  10. Chromatin is organized into fibers. Describe the 30 nm fiber.
    • Interactions between nucleosomes cause the thin fiber to coil or foldinto this thicker fiber
  11. Chromatin is organized into fibers. Describe the 300 nm fiber.
    The 30-nm fiber forms looped domains that attach to proteins
  12. what is the difference between euchromatin and heterochromatin?
    • Loosely packed chromatin is called euchromatin

    • During interphase a few regions of chromatin (centromeres and telomeres)are highly condensed into heterochromatin
  13. chromatin is coiled into different levels of organization. describe the metaphase chromosome structure.
    • The looped domains of the 300 nm fiber coil further
  14. true or false? Histones can undergo chemical modifications that result in changes inchromatin organization
    true

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