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What was the significance of the H.M.S. Beagle?
Ventral figure in the idea of evolution and natural selection
What was the title of Darwin's book explaining evolution?
Origin of Species
Why were the Galapagos Islands important?
they are sometimes thought of as labratories of evolutin, where Darwin got some important ideas of evolution
How did the Galapagos creatures and Darwin's finches influence Darwin's ideas about special creation?
He saw the differences that the finches were and evolved from different types of finches
What are the 4 Postulates of the Darwin theory?
- 1. Genetic variation is characteristic of all organisms
- 2. Organisms overproduce young, but population size remains relatively constant
- 3. There is a struggle for existence among all the offspring for available resources
- 4. There is survival of the fittest by means of natural selection
What is paleontology?
the study of past life as revealed by fossils
What is a fossil?
- Fossils of organisms preserved in the Earth's crust are different from present day organisms
- As one looks further back in the fossil record, one seems more and more different
What is artificial selection?
Humans change various species of plants.....
What is directional selection?
selection for the non-average or unusual phenotype and selection against the average phenotype
What is industrial mealanism?
- pepper moth was white to blend in with the lichen of the trees (black moths were easily seen and were eaten) so the white moths survive
- After the industrial revolution the black moths were the much common moth
What kind of animal was Industrial melanism first discovered in?
What are the 3 common colorations in animals?
- 1. Camoflage- blending into environment
- 2. Warning coloration- bright colors=danger, bad taste to predators
- 3. mimicry
What is coevolution?
adaptations of 2 species evolved in response to one another, fashioned by natural selection
What are 2 examples of coevolution?
- 1. Flowering plants and their animal pollinates
- 2. Ants and Acrcia trees, ants defend the tree from other organisms and the tree gives the ants a home and food
What is biological species?
A group of organisms which can interbreed and produce viable human offspring
What is gradualism?
evolution is a slow process, with changes occurring over long periods of time
What is mass extinction?
Large scale extinctions, like dinosaurs
What is australopithecus?
- The genus of the earliest known hominid from 4 million years ago
- Evolved into genus homo 2.5 million years ago, eventually giving rise to our species homosapiens 1.5 million years ago
Do scientists doubt evolution?
What is anthropomorphism?
To interpret animal behavior in terms of human purposes, or emotion
What is instinctive behavior?
An innate or inborn, built-in preprogrammed behaviors largely controlled by heredity
What is habituation?
Learning to ignore insignificant stimulus or learning not to respond
What did pavlov study?
What is conditioned reflex?
A simple learned, involuntary reaction to a stimulus which ordinarily produce a different response or no response at all
What is biological clocks?
internal timing mechanisms that allows us to synchronize out activities with the external environment
What is migration?
Regular long distance travel by a species to and from one area
What are the 5 cues used by animals in navigation?
- 1. Sun
- 2. Star Patterns
- 3. Chemical concentration gradients
- 4. Magnetic Field of the Earth
- 5. General Landmarks
What are the 3 requirements of social behavior?
- 1. Cooperation
- 2. Inhibition of aggression
- 3. Method of Communicatio
What are the 5 reasons why animals form societies?
- 1. It makes them less vulnerable to attack by predators
- 2. It allows them to find food or hunt more easily
- 3. It allows for a better division of labor
- 4. It allows for a better detection of predators
- 5. It allows for an increased likelihood of finding mates as well as a synchronization of reproductive behavior
What are 3 uses of animal communication?
- 1. To attract a mate
- 2. To defend a territory
- 3. To locate a food source
What are the 2 main examples of communication?
- 1. Visual displays
- 2. Chemicals
What is an example of a visual display?
Peacock with feathers
What is a pheromone?
A chemical secreted by an animal that influences the behavior of other animals, generally of the same species
What is the function of the waggle dance in bees?
Upon returning to the hive honeybee performs a "waggle dance" indicating the direction and distance of found nectar source
What are the 2 importances of play behavior to adult survival?
- 1. Allows young animals to practice adult behaviors that will be important to their survival later on
- 2. Enables young animals to establish social bonds and learn dominance relations
What is altrusim?
A behavior that helps another animal at the expense of the animal displaying the behavior
What is a niche?
An organisms role of profession in nature, like a job description and includes interactions, relationships food, predators
What is a community?
All the various populations of all different kinds of organisms in a particular place
What is matter?
Anything that has mass and takes up space, can be solid, liquids or gaseous phase
it is cyclic
What is biogeochemical (nutrient) cycles?
- From non living environment through living components of an ecosystem, and lack to the non living world
- pathways that important elements and minerals move, through from the non living or physical environment
what is an example of biogeochemical cycles?
Carbon cycle and Nitrogen cycle
What does abiotic mean?
What are 5 examples of abiotic factors?
- 1. Temperature
- 2. Light
- 3. Water
- 4. Gases, CO2 and O2
5. minerals, phosphorous or calcium
What is the First Law of of Thermodynamics (Law of conservation of energy)?
- "Energy is neither created nor destroyed"
- Energy can be changed from one form to another, but the amount of energy remains constant
What is the second law of thermodynamics (Law of enthropy)?
Each time energy changes from one form to another, a certain amount of available energy is lost from further use
What is a food chain?
A series of organisms connected by arrows that shows how energy moves from (photosynthetic) producers to consumers or decomposers
What is the 10 percent law?
Only about 10% of the available energy at any step of the food chain is transferred to the next step from growth or reproduction
What is a carnivore?
An animal that eats another animal
What is an omnivore?
- Animal that eats, plants and other animals
- ex. humans, pigs, dogs
What is symbiosis?
A living together of 2 different species in close association
What is mutualism?
a relationship that is beneficial to both species/organisms involved
What is a biome?
A major land climax ecosystem, characterized by large areas of uniform vegetation
What are the abiotic factors of the decidous forest?
cold winters, warm summers, adequate rainfall for trees, New England
What are the abiotic factors of the tropical rainforest?
Persistent warmth, humidity, and rainfall, equatorial, close to equator, most species diversity
What are four aquatic environments?
- 1. freshwater rivers and lakes
- 2. Coastal ocean waters
- 3. Coral reefs
- 4. Deep ocean regions
What are the two main events causing surgers in human populations?
- 1. Agricultural revolution
- 2. Industrial revolution
What are the 2 main causes of our current ecological crisis?
- 1. Rapidly expanding population (birthrate)
- 2. Ecologically destructive technology
What is the result of overpopulation?
- More people=more demand for food and energy
- Environmental problems increased
What are cassandras?
with respect to population and environmental problems those who are cassandras fear that the situation is getting out of control and if we don't act soon very grave problems will result
What percent of the world's population is in the US?
What percent of the world's resources we use?
What are limiting factors?
Any aspect of the environment that can limit population growth
What are the 8 limiting factors?
- 1. food
- 2. war
- 3. shelter
- 4. depletion of fossil fuels (energy)
- 5. epidemic disease
- 6. population density (crowdedness)
- 7. pollution
- 8. depletion of material resources
What is acid rain?
caused primarily by power plants and industries releasing sulfur and nitrogen oxide into air, this mixes with water vapor and falls to Earth as acids thus lowers ph of soils and freshwater
What is the greenhouse effect and global warming?
Light enters through the glass, and the heat rays (part of the light) cannot radiate out again as the glass acts to trap it, thus the greenhouse gets warmer
What is biological magnification?
- Concentration of a pesticide as it moves along through a food chain or up in a food pyramid.
- ex. DDT sprayed on land infected insects, birds that ate these insects caused them to have thin shells on their eggs and cracked easily
What is the harm of habitat destruction?
Causes the extinction of many species. If they're not destroyed outright their habitat is, and they disappear
How do these reasons relate "to our children's children's children"?
Without biological resources intact, future generations will suffer