Micro Ch. 10

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wvuong
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290399
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Micro Ch. 10
Updated:
2014-12-01 23:40:45
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micro
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micro
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Chapter 10
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  1. a large percentage of antibiotics and semisynthetic drugs are produced by members of the genus 
    a) Cephalosporium
    b) Penicillium
    c) Bacillus 
    d) Mycobacterium 
    e) Streptomyces
    Streptomyces
  2. an antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following? 
    A) Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure 
    B) The sterols in the cell wall become nonfunctional
    C) Cells cannot attach to their hosts 
    D) The replication of cells, including cancer cells, slows down
    E) Ribosomes lose their function 
    A) cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells? 
    A) animal cells 
    B) virus-infected cells 
    C) bacterial cells 
    D) both animal and fungal cells
    E) fungal cells 
    C) bacterial cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is a primary advantage of semisynthetic drugs? 
    A) have a broader spectrum of action 
    B) are less stable and consequently have fewer side effects 
    C) are not readily absorbed, so they persist longer
    D) must have a administered intravenously
    E) work faster 
    A) they have a broader spectrum of action
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. Which of the following drugs specifically targets cell walls that contain arabinogalactan-mycolic acid?
    A) bacitracin
    B) methicillin
    C) isoniazid 
    D) vancomycin
    E) penicillin
    C) isoniazid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. which of the following antibiotics disrupts cytoplasmic membrane function? 
    A) streptomycin
    B) erythromycin
    C) tetracycline
    D) penicillin 
    E) amphotericin B
    E) amphotericin B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is not a target of drugs that inhibit protein synthesis? 
    A) interference with alanine-alanine bridges
    B) the shape of the 30S ribosomal subunits 
    C) the tRNA docking site
    D) the enzymatic site of the 50S ribosomal subunit 
    E) movement of the ribosome from one codon to the next 
    A) interference with alanine-alanine bridges
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Which scientist coined the term antibiotic?
    A) Fleming 
    B) Waksman
    C) Ehrlich
    D) Domagk
    E) Kirby
    B) Waksman
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The most limited group of antimicrobial agents is the ____ drugs 
    A) antiviral
    B) antiprotozoan
    C) antibacterial
    D) antifungal 
    E) anthelmintic 
    A) antiviral
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Another term for the Kirby-Bauer test is the 
    A) minimum inhibitory concentration test 
    B) broth dilution test
    C) E test 
    D) minimum bactericidal concentration test 
    E) diffusion susceptibility test 
    E) diffusion susceptibility test
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Which of the following statements about the zone of inhibition is FALSE? 
    A) It is a clearing zone with no growth 
    B) It is a result of diffusion of the drug out of the paper disk 
    C) It is measured as a diameter 
    D) the larger the zone, the more resistant the organism 
    E) It is measured after incubation
    D) the larger the zone, the more resistant the organism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. Which of the following groups of drugs can become incorporated into the bones and teeth of a fetus? 
    A) tetracyclines 
    B) beta-lactams 
    C) aminoglycosides 
    D) quinolones 
    E) sulfonamides
    A) tetracyclines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which of the following can result when antibiotic therapy disrupts the normal microbiota? 
    A) pseudomembranous colitis and thrush
    B) thrush 
    C) anaphylactic shock 
    D) both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush
    E) black hairy tongue 
    D) both pseudomembranous colitis and thrush
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. Which of the following statements concerning development of antibiotic resistance is FALSE? 
    A) Resistance can occur thru mutation of existing bacterial genes
    B) Resistant cells are normally in the minority in a bacterial population 
    C) Resistant cells grow more efficiently and quickly than susceptible cells 
    D) It is often medicated by R-plasmids 
    E) New resistance genes can be gained thru transformation, transduction, or conjugation
    C) resistant cells grow more efficiently and quickly than susceptible cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. B-lactamase production is an example of which of the following types of resistance?
    A) removal of the drug via a pump
    B) overproduction of an enzyme in a key metabolic pathway
    C) change in the permeability of the drug 
    D)alteration of the target of the drug 
    E) inactivation of the drug 
    E) inactivation of the drug
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Probiotics 
    A) are an alternative to the use of chemotherapy involving microbial antagonism
    B) are an alternative to the use of chemotherapy
    C) is a term for resistance to antibiotics 
    D) involve microbial antagonism 
    E) involved the use of extracts from microorganisms 
    A) are an alternative to the use of chemotherapy involving microbial antagoism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. most drugs that inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall act by
    A) blocking the secretion of cell wall molecules from the cytoplasm
    B) preventing cross-linkage of NAM subunits 
    C) disrupting the formation of the mycolic acid layer of the cell wall 
    D) preventing the formation of alanine-alanine bridges 
    E) preventing the formation of B-lactamase
    B) preventing the cross-linkage of the NAM subunits
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Most broad-spectrum antibtiotics act by 
    A) inhibiting metabolic pathways 
    B) inhibiting the protein synthesis
    C) inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis 
    D) disrupting the cytoplasmic membrance
    E) inhibiting the synthesis of the cell wall 
    B) inhibiting protein synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. Which of the following antifungals works by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis? 
    A) turbinafine
    B) nystatin 
    C) fluconzaole
    D) both fluconazole and turbinafine
    E) amphotericin B 
    D) both fluconazole and turbinafine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Sulfonamides 
    A) were the first widely used antimicrobial drugs 
    B) were the first widely used antimetabolic antimicrobial and indirectly inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
    C) indirectly inhibit the synthesis of nucleic acids 
    D) are no longer widely used 
    E) are antimetabolic drugs 
    B) were the first widely used antimetabolic antibmicrobial and indirectly inhibit nucleic acid synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following pathways is a specifically inhibited by sulfonamides?
    a) the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid to PABA
    B) the conversion of PABA to dihydrofolic acid C) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid
    D) the conversion of PABA to tetrahydrofolic acid
    E) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to PAB
    b) the conversion of PABA to dihydrofolic acid
  22. 22) Which of the following drugs inhibits nucleic acid synthesis specifically in prokaryotes?
    A) rifampin
    B) actinomycin
    C) 5-fluorocytosine
    D) quinolones
    E) tetracycline
    D) quinolones
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. 23) The cooperative activity of drugs such as beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, is known as
    A) chemotherapy
    B) synergism.
    C) cross resistance.
    D) selective toxicity.
    E) antimetabolism.
    B) synergism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. 24) Alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs?
    A) mitochondria
    B) cytoplasmic membrane
    C) porins
    D) ribosomes
    E) plasmids
    C) porins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. 25) It is inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat colds or flu because
    A) these diseases are transmitted by endospores, which are hard to kill.
    B) these diseases can act synergistically with each other.
    C) the microbes involved can develop resistance rapidly.
    D) these diseases are caused by viruses.
    E) these diseases exhibit cross resistance.
    D) these disease are caused by viruses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. 26) Who discovered the first widely available antibiotic?
    A) Ehrlich
    B) Waksman
    C) Domagk
    D) Fleming
    E) Ehrlich and Waksman
    C) domagk
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. 27) Which of the following statements is true of selective toxicity?
    A) Selective toxicity takes advantage of structural differences between host and pathogen.
    B) Selective toxicity takes advantage of structural and/or metabolic differences between host and pathogen
    C) To be effective, an antimicrobial agent must be more toxic to the patient than the pathogen.
    D) Selective toxicity takes advantage of metabolic differences between host and pathogen.
    E) Antimicrobial agents must target structural differences between host and pathogen and be more toxic to the patient than the pathogen.
    B) selective toxicity takes advantage of structural and/or metabolic differences between host and pathogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. 28) Antimicrobials that block protein synthesis by binding to the mRNA are
    A) nucleic acid analogs
    B) beta-lactams.
    C) aminoglycosides.
    D) antisense nucleic acids.
    E) macrolides.
    D) antisense nucleic acids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. 29) The Etest determines which of the following?
    A) MIC
    B) both MBC and MIC
    C) both susceptibility and MIC
    D) susceptibility
    E) MBC
    C) both susceptibility and MIC
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. 30) Which of the following is NOT a criterion by which all antimicrobial agents can be evaluated?
    A) their spectrum of action
    B) their safety
    C) their route of administration
    D) their activity against cell walls
    E) their efficacy
    D) their activity against cell walls
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. 31) Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation?
    A) vancomycin
    B) cycloserine
    C) bacitracin
    D) beta-lactams
    E) both cycloserine and vancomycin
    E) both cycloserine and vancomycin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. 32) Antimicrobial sugar analogs are effective for
    A) preventing cell membrane synthesis.
    B) blocking a metabolic pathway.
    C) preventing bacterial protein synthesis.
    D) preventing nucleic acid synthesis.
    E) preventing virus attachment.
    E) preventing virus attachment
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. 33) Which of the following is a measurement associated with the broth dilution test?
    A) presence of turbidity and cell lysis
    B) lack of turbidity and zone of inhibition
    C) cell lysis
    D) lack of turbidity
    E) the zone of inhibition
    D) lack of turbidity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. 34) Infection of the __________ would be the hardest to treat with antimicrobial drugs.
    A) heart
    B) liver
    C) colon
    D) brain
    E) kidneys
    D) brain
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. 35) Disruption of the normal microbiota can result in infections caused by which of the following microbes?
    A) both Mycobacterium and Clostridium difficile
    B) Candida albicans
    C) Candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium difficile
    D) Clostridium difficile
    E) Mycobacterium
    C) candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and clostridium difficile
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. 36) The antimicrobials called quinolones act by
    A) inhibiting cell wall synthesis.
    B) disrupting cytoplasmic membranes.
    C) inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis.
    D) inhibiting a metabolic pathway.
    E) inhibiting protein synthesis
    C) inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. 37) Amphotericin B is an antifungal drug that
    A) inhibits nucleic acid synthesis.
    B) blocks a metabolic pathway.
    C) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes.
    D) inhibits protein synthesis.
    E) inhibits cell wall synthesis
    C) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. 38) The mechanism of action of the antibiotic vancomycin is
    A) inhibition of protein synthesis.
    B) inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
    C) disruption of cytoplasmic membranes
    D) inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis.
    E) inhibition of a metabolic pathway.
    B) inhibition of cell wall synthesis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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