Heart Anatomy Test

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Author:
stuylinerd
ID:
290404
Filename:
Heart Anatomy Test
Updated:
2014-12-01 23:58:46
Tags:
anatomy
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Description:
MD Test 12/2/14
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  1. List the breakdown of arteries (large --> small)
    arteries --> arterioles --> capillaries
  2. List the convergence of veins (small --> large)
    capillaries --> venules --> veins
  3. Thinner walls
    veins : get less blood pressure

    atrial: higher pressures in ventricles to move blood
  4. pericardium
    serous membrane surrounding the heart
  5. parietal layer
    outer layer of the fibrous pericardium
  6. pericardial cavity
    potential space between the parietal & visceral layers
  7. visceral pericardium (epicardium)
    outer layer of heart wall
  8. myocardium
    • middle layer of heart wall
    • ¬†> made of cardiac muscle
  9. endocardium (epithelium)
    inner lining of heart
  10. Base of Heart
    the top of the heart, proximal to the head
  11. Apex of Heart
    Bottom of heart, distal from head
  12. interatrial septum
    wall that separates 2 atria
  13. interventricular septum
    wall that separates 2 ventricles
  14. right atrium
    • a collecting chamber of blood where blood returns after its trip from the body
    • blood returns from superior & inferior vena¬†cavae
  15. atrioventricular (AV) valve
    • a valve that pumps blood from an atrium to a ventricle
    • comes in 2: bicuspid and tricuspid
  16. tricuspid valve
    separates the right atrium from the right ventricle
  17. bicuspid valve
    separates the left atrium from the left ventricle
  18. semilunar valves
    • valves that prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricles
    • comes in 2: one pulmonary and the other aortic
  19. systole
    the contraction of the heart when blood is ejected
  20. diastole
    the relaxation of the heart when the chambers begin to fill
  21. How does contraction travel?
    begin and apex and travel upwards
  22. coronary arteries
    • oxygen-supplying blood vessels to heart that are diverted from the aorta
    • right coronary artery: gives blood to right ventricle, posterior portion of interventricular septum & inferior parts of heart
    • left coronary artery: gives blood to left lateral & anterior walls of left ventricle, to portionsof right ventricle, interventricular septum
  23. anastomoses
    • webs of interconnecting arteries and veins that enable the muscle to constantly receive a rich supply of blood
    • increased in number & location by exercise
  24. autorhythmicity
    • ability of cardiac muscle to contract on its own
    • problem arises when contractions are uncontrolled & individual
  25. nodal (pacemaker) cells
    • cells that create electrical impulses at regular intervals to control the contractions of the heart
    • two types: sinoatrial (SA) node & atrioventricular (AV) node
  26. SA node
    • main collection of pacemaker cells located in wall of right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava
    • send impulse to AV node for distribution
  27. AV node
    • collection of pacemaker cells at point where atria and ventricles meet
    • send their own impulse following the signal of the SA node
    • can take over if SA node can't generate impulse --> slower heartbeat
  28. List the electrical steps to a heartbeat
    • SA node generate impulse --> conducting cells transmit to AV node
    • signal delay allow atria to fill with blood
    • AV node receive charge --> continue journey through AV bundle / bundle of His
    • divide into left & right bundle branches --> spread across inner surfaces of both ventricles
    • Purkinje cells carry impulse to contractile muscle cells --> contraction start and apex and move to base

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