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What is a gymnosperm and what are their main features?
- Male and female cones
- Pollen dispersed by the wind
- Needle or scale like leaves
- Cones have "wing" for being dispersed over long distances
What are some advantages that seed plants have over seedless plants (mosses and ferns)?
- Fertilization does not require water
- Diploid zygote forms diploid seed that is resistant to drying out
What are angiosperms?
- Flowering plants
- Make fruits to protect zygote
What are the characteristics of a monocot?
- Flower parts in multiples of 3
- 1 seed leaf (cotyledon)
- Parallel veins
- Vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem
- Large xylem, smaller phloem
What are the characteristics of a dicot?
- Flower parts in multiiples of 4 or 5
- 2 seed leaves (cotyledons)
- net like pattern of veins
- vascular bundles in a ring in the outer part of stem
- large xylem, smaller phloem
Label the parts of the flower:
- 1.Carpel (female)
- 2. Stamen (male)
- 3. Petal
- 4. Stem
- 5. Sepal
- 6. Stigma
- 7. Style
- 8. Ovary
- 9. Anther
- 10. Filament
How are angiosperms pollinated?
- Primarily animals and insects!
What are the 9 phyla of animals and their main characteristics?
- 1. Porifera: Sponges - body with many pores, no tissue layers, no symmetry
- 2. Cnidaria: Hydra, jellies, coral - 2 cell layers, radial symmetry, stinging tentacles
- 3. Flatworms: planaria, tapeworm - flat body, one opening for digestion, bilateral symmetry, cephalization
- 4. Roundworms: nematoda - mouth and anus, bilateral symmetry, non segmented
- 5. Segmented worms: earthworms, annelida, leeches - body divided into segments, mouth and anus, moves with bristles, cylindrical and longitudinal muscles
- 6. Molluscs: clams, snails, squid, octopus - shell of calcium, bivalves, gastropods, cephalopods
- 7. Echinoderms - starfish, sea urchin, sand dollar - pentaradial symmetry, tube feet for motion and suction
- 8. Arthropods: exoskeleton, jointed legs - myriapods (centipedes), crustaceans (crabs, 2 pairs of antennae), arachnids (spiders), insects (6 legs, 2 pairs of wings)
- 9. Chordates: animals with back bones!
What are the 4 characteristics that all chordate embryos share?
- 1. dorsal hollow nerve cord
- 2. notocord
- 3. gill slits
- 4. post anal tail
What are the 7 classes of chordates?
- 1. Tunicates and lancelets: no cephalization, filter feeders
- 2. Jawless fish: lampreys - constant open mouth, cranium and vertebrae
- 3. Cartilage fish: sharks, rays - skeleton of cartilage
- 4. Bony fish: perch - bones, air bladder, 2 chambered heart
- 5. Amphibians: frogs, toads - 1/2 water 1/2 land, external fertilization, small lungs, cutaneous respiration, 3 chambered heart
- 6. Reptiles: snakes, birds - water tight, scaly skin, internal fertilization, eggs, cloaca, avian (4 chambered heart, endotherm) and non avian (3 chambered)
- 7. Mammals: mammary glands, hair, endothermic, placenta
What are the main orders of mammals?
- 1. Chiroptera - bats
- 2. Rodents - rats, mice
- 3. Carnivores - cats
- 4. Even toed hoofed - pigs
- 5. Primates - monkeys, humans