sociology inequalities

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Mazie
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290471
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sociology inequalities
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2014-12-04 15:06:00
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sociology
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  1. 1. Slave system is a legalized social inequality. Slave system is a legalized social inequality. 

    T F
    T
  2. 2. In America, architects usually enjoy higher occupational prestige than middle school teachers. 

    T F
    T
  3. 3. In sociology, the notion of socioeconomic status (SES) can measured by three variables/indicators. They are education level, income, and racial background. 

    T F
    F

    3: change “racial background” to “occupational prestige”
  4. 4. The concept of social class is proposed by Karl Marx. 

    T F
    T
  5. sociology, the concept of blue bloods refers to upper- upper class people. 
    T F
    T
  6. 6. Generally speaking, the social boundary of the capitalist society is as rigid as that of the socialist system. 

    T F
    F

    6: change “as rigid as” to “less rigid as”
  7. 7. Some people enjoy power because they are famous. Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan is one of such examples. 

    T F
    T
  8. 8. According to functionalism, all jobs/occupations are equally important. 

    T F
    T
  9. 9. Th'he term social class refers to a group of people who enjoy a similar level of prestige•/wealth. 

    T F
    F

    9: change “prestige/wealth” to “property/wealth”
  10. terms of inter-generational mobility, younger generation's social status always is higher than that of older generation's. 

    T  F
    F

    10: change “always” to “sometimes”
  11. 11. In a socialist society, social positions usually determined by income only. 

    T F
    F

    11: change income only” to “income and power”
  12. 12. Slavery is a purely historical phenomenon. Sociologists no longer can find any slave societies in the modern world. 

    T F
    F

    • 12: Slavery is not a purely historical phenomenon because
    • some slave societies still can be found in the modern world.
  13. 13. In sociology, one of the occupations dominated by lower- middle class people is policeman. 

    T F
    T
  14. 14. When sociologists use individualistic approach to explain poverty, they usually will emphasize that poor people should be blamed and held responsible for their destitution. 

    T F
    T
  15. Caste membership is an achieved status. 

    T F
    F

    15: change “achieved” to “ascribed”
  16. 16. If we use functionalism to analyze American society, then the occupation of computer engineer would be more important (or valuable) than the occupation of truck driver. 

    T F
    F

    16. change “functionalism” to “conflict theory”
  17. 17. According to Dahrendorf (who is a conflict theorist) , there is a close relationship between property and social class. 

    T F
    F

    17: change “property” to “power”
  18. 18. Symbolic interactionists argue that, in addition to income, social/class boundary can also be maintained by clothing style, speech pattern, and identity-related symbols. 

    T F
    T
  19. 19. In terms of political attitude, upper-class people tend to be more liberal than their lower-class counterparts (i.e., the Former are more likely to support social reform than the latter) . 

    F T
    F

    • 19: change “liberal” to “conservative”; change “more likely”
    • to “less likely”
  20. 20. In a conservative Islamic society, one of the most important factors that will determine someone's social status is religious affiliation. 

    T F
    T
  21. 21. Comparatively, white-collar jobs entail more abstract thought than blue-collar occupations. 

    T F
    T
  22. 22. According to studies, it is easy for people to experience upward mobility within a single generation (i.e., intragenerational mobility) in simple or authoritarian/totalitarian societies 

    F T
    F

    22. change “easy” to “difficult”
  23. Which of the following can determine someone's ascribed status? 

    a. racial background 
    b. gender 
    c. native language 
    d. physical looking 
    e. all of the above
    E
  24. Max Weber argues that social class involves three interrelated factors/variables. They are _____.

    a. wealth, power, prestige 
    b. property, power, poverty 
    c. profit, power, prestige 
    d. profit, poverty, prestige 
    e. property, profit, prestige
    A
  25. 25. According to conflict theory, which of the following is functionally more important (i.e., without such an occupation, a society may face the crisis of survival)? 

    a. waiter 
    b. F-18 pilot 
    C. chef 
    d. cashier 
    e. taxi driver
    B
  26. 26. In terms ot prestigious scores, which occupation in the following is functionally less important? 

    a. electrical engineer 
    b. bulldozer operator 
    c. dentist 
    d. editor-in-chief 
    e. astronomer
    B
  27. According to Ralf Dahrendorf, which of the following occupation is not included in the command class? 

    a. governor 
    b. state head 
    c. secretary 
    d. court judge 
    e. military general
    C
  28. 28. According to statistics, approximately two-thirds of all poor people In the U.S. are ________.

    a. Whites 
    b. Blacks 
    c. Asians 
    d. Latinos 
    e. Native Americans
    A
  29. 29. Structural causes of poverty usually are related to factors like ______.

    a. job disappearance 
    b. schizophrenia 
    c. chronic diseases 
    d. welfare system malfunction 
    e. individualism
    A
  30. 30. When a certain portion of a population undergo upward/downward mobility simultaneously, then this phenomenon is called _______.

    a. structural/collective mobility 
    b. exchange mobility 
    c. involuntary mobility 
    d. aggregate mobility 
    e. integrated mobility
    A
  31. 31. Which of the following person is more likely to experience status inconsistency? 

    a. John Gotti (former Mafia boss) 
    b. Bill Gates 
    c. Yo-Yo Ma (a cellist) 
    d. Tiger Woods 
    e. Harrison Ford
    A
  32. 32. Which of the following person's status is NOT achieved? 

    a. Albert Einstein 
    b. Queen Elizabeth 
    c. Jodie Foster 
    d. Colin Powell 
    e. George W. Bush
    B
  33. 33. If you decide to use reputational method to measure the social rankings of some local people, then this method usually is applicable only to places like ________.


    a. Baton Rouge 
    b. New Orleans 
    c. small rural town somewhere in southern Louisiana 
    d. Houston 
    e. Lafayette
    C
  34. 34. The concept of culture of poverty is suggested by ________.

    a. Talcott Parsons 
    b. Max Weber 
    c. Karl Marx 
    d. Oscar Lewis 
    e. William J. Wilson
    D
  35. 35. Statistically, the percentages of people living below poverty line in Louisiana are _______.

    a. less than 5% 
    b. 5-10% 
    c. 10-15% 
    d. 15-20% 
    e. 20% and higher
    D
  36. 36. Which of the following is also called the working rich? 
    a. upper middles 
    b. lower uppers 
    c. lower middles 
    d. upper uppers 
    e. average middles
    B
  37. 37. The notion of underclass is advanced by ________.

    a. Emile Durkheim 
    b. Max Weber 
    C. Karl Marx 
    d. Ralf Dahrendorf 
    e. William J. Wilson
    E
  38. 1. Generally speaking, social stratification along racial lines is less resistant to transform than stratification along ethnic lines. 

    T F
    F

    1: change “less resistant” to “more resistant”
  39. 2. On average, Asian Americans have the highest education level in the U.S. 

    T F
    T
  40. 3. According to definitions, racism is a discrimination. 

    F T
    F

    3: change “discrimination” to “prejudice”
  41. Generally speaking, members of a certain prejudiced/discriminated group will change (or even give up) their ethnic identities when they face institutionalized prejudice and/or discrimination, . 

    T  F
    T
  42. 5. According to functionalists, one of the most important functions of prejudice and discrimination is that both can make certain minorities do menial or dirty jobs. 

    T  F
    T
  43. 6. Compared to other racial minorities, Asian Americans (especially Chinese, Korean, and Japanese Americans) usually are considered by the authorities as the so-called "model minority." 

    T  F
    T
  44. 7. According to statistics, the largest Hispanic populations in the U.S. are of Mexican origin. 

    T F
    T
  45. 8. If we use letters to represent inter-racial relations, then amalgamation should be expressed as the following: 
    A+B+C+D+E --> C + D + E 

    T F
    F

    8: change “amalgamation” to “genocide”
  46. 9. Timid bigots are those people who are not prejudiced, but they will discriminate against the minorities. 

    T F
    F

    9: change “Timid bigots” to “Fair-weather liberals”
  47. 10. The inter-racial relationships in Switzerland provide a typical example for multiculturalism or pluralism. 

    T  F
    T
  48. 11. According to the census of the year 2010, the largest minority group in the U.S. is African Americans. 

    T  F
    F

    11: change “African Americans” to “Latinos”
  49. 12. The concept of self-fulfilling prophecy is suggested by functionalists. 


    T  F
    F

    12: change “functionalists” to “symbolic interactionists”
  50. 13. Generally speaking, widowers, disabled persons, divorced women, less-educated people, and followers of religious sects usually are targets (or victims) of prejudice/discrimination in the U.S. 

    T F
    T
  51. 14. Sociologically, memberships of minority and dominant groups are achieved. 

    T  F
    F

    14: change “achieved” to “ascribed”
  52. 15. Strictly speaking, there is no "pure race" in the modern world. 

    T  F
    T
  53. 16. The following formula represents genocide, the worst pattern of inter-racial relationships. 
    A + B + C + D --> E 

    T  F
    F

    • 16: change “genocide” to “amalgamation”; change “the worst”
    • to “another”
  54. 17. According to statistics, more than 40% the Jewish populations in the world live in Israel. 

    T  F
    F

    17. change “Israel” to “US”
  55. 18. Racially, the Jews should be categorized as Red. 

    F T
    F

    18: change “Red” to “White”
  56. 19. Covert racism is also called aversive racism. 

    T F
    T
  57. For sociologists, the most effective way to make America a melting pot is through intermarriages or amalgamation. 

    T F
    T
  58. 21. According to statistics, Native Americans have the highest percentages of people living under the poverty line 

    T  F
    T
  59. 22. Hispanic Americans are a highly homogeneous group. 

    T  F
    F

    • 22 to 25:  change
    • “highly homogeneous” to “highly heterogeneous”
  60. 23. Asian Americans are a highly homogeneous group. 

    T  F
    F

    • 22 to 25:  change
    • “highly homogeneous” to “highly heterogeneous”
  61. 24. White Americans are a highly homogeneous group. 

    T  F
    F

    • 22 to 25:  change
    • “highly homogeneous” to “highly heterogeneous”
  62. 25. African Americans are a highly homogeneous group. 

    T   F
    F

    • 22 to 25:  change
    • “highly homogeneous” to “highly heterogeneous”
  63. 26. After the September 11 incident, which of the following is more likely to experience prejudice and be considered as terrorists? 

    a. Cuban Americans 
    b. Russian Americans 
    c. Mexican Americans 
    d. Indian Americans 
    e. Muslims
    E
  64. 27. According to the concept internal colonialism, racial minorities are more likely to get job like ________.

    a. lawyer 
    b. college professor 
    c- janitor 
    d. state governor 
    e. computer programmer
    C
  65. 28. Before the apartheid was lifted, the segregation system in South Africa can be characterized as ________.

    a. voluntary segregation 
    b. de facto segregation 
    c. de jure segregation 
    d. consensual segregation 
    e. contingent segregation
    C
  66. 29. According to dual labor market theory, which racial/ethnic group in the U.S. is more likely to be channeled into the so-called competitive labor market? 

    a. Italian Americans 
    b. French Americans 
    c. Native Americans 
    d. German Americans 
    e. Scottish Americans
    C
  67. 30. In class, we discussed several possible patterns of inter-racial relationship. Of those possible patterns, ________seems to be the best. 

    a. segregation 
    b. assimilation 
    c. amalgamation 
    d. genocide 
    e. multiculturalism
    E
  68. 31. How many racial groups can you Identify in the following? 
    Japanese Americans 
    Chinese Americans 
    Austrian Americans 
    Nigerian Americans 
    Iraqi Americans 

    a. 1 
    b. 2 
    c. 3 
    d. 4 
    e. 5
    D
  69. 32. During World War II, which racial/ethnic group(s) in the following had ever been sent by American government to the so-called evacuation camps? 

    a. German Americans 
    b. Italian Americans 
    c. Japanese Americans 
    d. a and b 
    e. a, b, and c
    E
  70. 33. Some elite universities in the U.S. set a quota system to limit the entrance of certain minority groups. This is a typical example of ___________.

    a. indirect institutional discrimination 
    b. direct institutional discrimination 
    c. glass ceiling 
    d. scapegoat 
    e. self-fulfilling prophecy
    B
  71. 34. Under some circumstances, __________are viewed as dangerous class by law enforcement agents. 

    a. Portuguese Americans 
    b. Mexican Americans 
    c. Puerto Rican Americans 
    d. Jewish Americans 
    e. African Americans
    E
  72. 35. Which of the following is a psychological theory of racial inequality? 


    a. preference theory 
    b. exchange theory 
    c. survival theory 
    d. contact theory 
    e. frustration theory
    E
  73. 36. The inter-racial relationships in America can be characterized as ________.

    a. assimilation 
    b. population transfer 
    c. internal colonialism 
    d. pluralism/multiculturalism 
    e. segregation
    A
  74. 37. Minorities have several traits in common. Which of the following is NOT one of them? 

    a. "atypical" physical appearance 
    b. targets of differential treatment 
    c. easy to be identified 
    d. geographic concentration 
    e. lack of power
    D
  75. 38. In America, __________has the highest percentages of immigrants. 

    a. Arizona 
    b. Louisiana 
    c. California 
    d. Texas 
    e. New York
    C
  76. 39. Gendered racism theory is an idea advocated by ___________..


    a. conflict theorists 
    b. functionalists 
    c. symbolic interactionists 
    d. none of the above
    A
  77. 40. Contact hypothesis/theory is proposed by __________.


    a. functionalists 
    b. conflict theorists 
    c. symbolic interactionists 
    d. exchange theorists 
    e. non of the above
    C
  78. 1. In terms of goal, the chief purpose of radical feminists is to determine the values of female labor. 

    T  F
    F

    1: change “radical feminists” to “socialist feminists”
  79. 2. Some occupations are over-represented by females, such as social worker, nurse, cashier, and kindergarten teacher. 

    T  F
    T
  80. 3. High level of testosterone/sex hormone will, without exceptions, ieaa to violent and aggressive behaviors. 

    T  F
    F

    • 3: According to studies, only under certain circumstances
    • will high level of sex hormone lead to violent behaviors
  81. 4. One of the focal issues examined by feminist sociologists is how ideological shapes gender identity.


    T  F
    T
  82. 5. Generally speaking, both security guard and engineer are jobs dominated by females. 

    T  F
    F

    5: change “females” to “males”
  83. 6. The concept of second shift is advanced by Charles Cooley. 

    T  F
    F

    6: change “Charles Cooley” to “Arlie Hochschild”
  84. 7. In America and many other countries, women will, in one way or another, be discouraged to enter business school and/or military academy. 

    T  F
    T
  85. 8. Compared to well-educated minorities, both poor white males and unskilled white females in the U.S. are more likely to get menial or low-paid jobs. 

    T  F
    T
  86. According to dual labor market thesis, the monopoly (OR primary) sector of the job market in America includes occupations like gas station attendant and janitor. 

    T  F
    F

    9: change “monopoly/primary” to “competitive/secondary”
  87. 10. According to crime statistics, (marital) rapes are more likely to take place in Black families. 

    T  F
    F

    10: change “Black” to “dysfunctional”
  88. 11. Wife beatings are usually related to the so-called Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde syndrome. 


    T  F
    T
  89. 12. In America, males and females doing the same jobs usually will get the same pay. 

    T  F
    F

    12: change “the same” to “different”
  90. 13. According to sociological researches, wife beatings are more likely to take place in lower-class minority families. 

    T  F
    T
  91. 14. in terms of gender role, males usually will be expected to exhibit certain traits, like conservative and tender. 


    T  F
    F

    14: change “males” to “females”
  92. 15. Radical feminists believe that some cultural elements ( eg  love) will promote females' dependence on males. 

    T  F
    T
  93. 16. Both stenographer and typist are pink-collar occupations. 

    T  F
    T
  94. 17. Sociologically, most cases of sexual harassment are sex- related/motivated. 

    T   F
    F

    17: change “sex-motivated” to “power-motivated”
  95. 18. In many/ countries, dark green usually is considered to be a color for boys (i.e., a masculine color). 

    T  F
    T
  96. There are no female genital mutilation cases in North America. 

    T  F
    F

    • 19: Female genital mutilation cases still can be found in
    • some Islamic communities of North America.
  97. 20. According to researches, women are less likely to experience depression or other forms of mental problem if they conform to traditional expectations/roles (i.e., assuming stereotypical identities). 

    T  F
    T
  98. 21. Sexism usually has something to do with matriarchy. 

    T  F
    F

    21. change “matriarchy” to “patriarchy”
  99. Some sociologists believe that certain activities (like beauty pageants) will make young girls assume stereotypical identities. 

    T  F
    T
  100. 23. According to definitions, one of our tribal identities is income. 

    T  F
    F

    23. change “income” to “race” or “gender”
  101. Sexism is a form of prejudice based on gender. 

    T  F
    T
  102. 25. Which of the following is NOT a feature of sex? 

    a. development of muscle 
    b. organs related to re-production 
    c. height 
    d. ambition 
    e. weight
    D
  103. 26. The idea of gender complementarity/differentiation is advanced by _____________.

    a. functionalists 
    b. conflict theorists 
    c. symbolic interactionists 
    d. exchange theorists 
    e. critical theorists
    A
  104. 27. intellectually, there is a close relationship between feminist movements and _______.

    a. functionalism 
    b. conflict theory 
    c. symbolic interactionism 
    d. exchange theory 
    e. none of the above
    B
  105. 28. The most important dimension of gender inequality involves ___________.

    a. life span 
    b. tracking in education 
    c. opportunity of promotion 
    d. family life 
    e. religious affiliation
    A
  106. 29. According to statistics, domestic homicide is more likely to take place _______ American families. 

    a. White 
    b. African 
    c. Asian 
    d. Native 
    e. Hispanic
    B
  107. Which of the following is more likely to face double jeopardy (i.e., double discrimination) in the U.S.? 

    a. French American women 
    b. Polish American women 
    c. Italian American women 
    d. Haitian American women 
    e. Irish American women
    D
  108. 31. In America, ________appear to be more likely to accept even get involved in) homosexual behaviors. 

    a. female Protestants 
    b. male Protestants 
    c. poor-educated males 
    d. old women 
    e. well-educated people
    E
  109. 32. in early human societies, which of the following task usually was dominated by men? 

    a. taking care of children 
    b. nursing 
    c. educating children 
    d. hunting 
    e. cooking
    D
  110. 33. Which of the following occupation is underrepresented by women? 

    a. airplane pilot 
    b. elevator operator 
    c. elementary school teacher 
    d. dental hygienist 
    e. middle school teacher
    A
  111. 34. Historical theory of gender inequality centers on the process of how ________is created. 

    a. matriarchy 
    b. patriarchy 
    c. double standard 
    d. polyandry 
    e. polygyny
    B
  112. __________was the first woman appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court. 

    a. Hillary Clinton 
    b. Sandra O'Connor 
    C. Geraldine Ferraro 
    d. Nancy Reagan 
    e. Margaret Roosevelt
    B
  113. 36. Although sexual behavior generally is considered by the public as a private issue, _____________is the most influential social institution that will regulate human sexual acts. 

    a- school 
    b. the church 
    c. the government 
    d. social welfare agency 
    e. the police
    C
  114. 37. Overall, the most important/influential element that will shape the social images of gender is _________.

    a. the army 
    b. the government 
    c. the church 
    d. the media 
    e. the prison
    D

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