Chapter 16: Using Social Media to Connect with Consumers
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What is a blog?
The word blog is a contraction of "web log". it is a web page that serves as a publicly accessible personal journal and online forum for an individual or organization (p. 364).
What is a Wiki?
It is a website whose content is created and edited by the ongoing collaboration of end users, for example, to generate and improve new product ideas (p. 364)
What is user generated content (UGC)?
this refers to the carious forms of online media content that are publicly available and created by end users (p. 364).
What three basic criteria does UGC satisfy?
- It is published either on a publicly accessible website or on a social networking site, so it is not simply and e-mail.
- It shows a significant degree of creative effort, so it is more than simply posting a newspaper article on a personal blog without editing or comments.
- It is consumer-generated by an individual outside of a professional organization, without a commercial market in mind.
What is social media?
Online media where users submit comments, photos, and videos - often accompanied by a feedback process to identify "popular" topics (p. 364)
What is the term social network used for?
It is used to refer to a single social media site like Facebook or YouTube (p. 364)
Kaplan and Haenlein have proposed a classification system for marketers is based on what two factors?
It is based on Media Richness and Self-disclosure (p. 365)
What does media richness involve?
This involves the degree of acoustic, visual, and personal contact between two communication patterns -- face-to-face communications, say, being higher in media richness that telephone or e-mail communications. The higher the media richness and quality of presentation, the greater the social influence that communication partners have on each other's behavior (p. 365).
What does self-disclosure involve?
In any type of social interaction, individuals want to make a positive impression to achieve a favorable image with others. This favorable image is affected by the degree of self-disclosure about a person;s thoughts, feelings, likes, and dislikes - Where greater self-disclosure is likely to increase one's influence on those reached (p. 365)
Comparing social and traditional media: ability to reach both large and niche audiences
Both kinds of media can be designed to reach wither a mass market or specialized segments; however, good execution is critical, and audience size is not guaranteed (p.366).
Comparing social and traditional media: expense and access
messages and ads in traditional media like newspapers or television generally are expensive to produce and have restricted access by individuals. also, traditional media are typically owned privately or by the government. In contrast, messages on social media networks are generally accessible everywhere to those with smartphones, computers, and tablet devices and can be produced cheaply (p. 366).
Comparing social and traditional media: Training and number of people involved
Producing traditional media typically requires specialized skills and training and often involves teams of people. In contrast, sending messages on social media requires only limited skills, so practically anyone can post a message that includes words and images (p. 366).
Comparing social and traditional media: Time to delivery
Traditional media can involve days or even months on continuing effort to deliver the communication, and time lags can be extensive. In contrast, individuals using social media can post virtually instantaneous content (p. 366).
Comparing social and tradition media: permanence
Traditional media, once created, cannot be altered. For example, once a magazine article is printed and distributed, it cannot be changes. But social media can be altered almost instantaneously by comments or editing (p. 366).
Comparing social and traditional media: credibility and social authority
individuals and organizations can establish themselves as an "expert" in their given field , thereby becoming and "influencer" in that field. For example, The New York Times had immense credibility among newspaper media. But with social media, a sender often simply begins to participate in the "conversation", hoping that the quality of the message will establish credibility with the receivers, thereby enhancing the sender's influence (p. 366).
What is Facebook?
A website where users may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, and exchange comments, photos, videos, and "likes" with them (p. 367).
Why were Facebook pages created?
They were created as a method for brand managers to generate awareness for their products, services, or brand withing Facebook. They allow brand managers to promote their business on Facebook, separate from their private and personal profiles. Done well, these are magnets for feedback. Additionally, Facebook Page information is generally public and cataloged by search engines so brand managers can identify influencers within their customer base (p. 367).
What did Buddy Media, an online consulting group, suggest as guidelines to encourage fans on Facebook?
- Make it familiar, but with a twist
- Keep it fresh/updated
- Let users get engaged and guide content (p. 368)
What is Twitter?
A website that enables users to send and receive "tweets", messages up to 140 characters long. Twitter is based on the principle of "followers" (p. 369).
What stages to brand managers have for listening to and interacting with present and potential consumers using Twitter?
- Generate brand buzz by developing an official Twitter profile, recruiting followers, and showing pictures of their products.
- Follow the Twitter profiles that mention their product and monitor what is being said, responding to user criticisms to develop happier customers.
- Tweet on topics that provide information of value to their consumers.
What is LinkedIn?
A business-oriented website that lets users post their professional profiles to connect to a network of businesspeople, who are also called connections (p. 370).
What are two tips experts give to LinkedIn users?
- Focus your profile to make sure it is both complete and current and includes who you are professionally, who you can help, and how you can help them.
- Brand yourself as an expert with "answers" by searching through relevant questions to let your answers showcase your abilities (p. 370).
How do marketing managers use LinkedIn to promote their brand in subtle (primary) ways?
This is done mainly for business-to-business (B2B) image building and networking with industry-related groups. A company can also use LinkedIn for business development to find sales leads and vendors and to organize focus groups (p. 370).
What is YouTube?
A video-sharing website in which users can upload, distribute view, and comment on videos. YouTube uses streaming video technology to display user generated video content that includes movie and TV clips, music videos, and original videos developed by amateurs (p. 371).
How does YouTube help brand manager's?
It offers great opportunities for a brand manager to produce and show a video that explains the benefits of a complex product. YouTube is owned by Google and incorporates a search engine so users interested in a specific topic can find it easily. in terms of cost advantages, while a brand manager must pay the cost of creating a video, launching a new channel on YouTube is free (p. 371).
What are the guidelines on marketing and promoting a brand using YouTube?
- Create a branded channel rich in key words to improve the odds of the video showing up in user searches.
- Target viewers by using YouTube's insights and analytics research to reveal the number of views, the number of visits to your website, and what key words are driving user visits (p. 372)
The strategic marketing process and the communications process running from sender to receiver -- Traditional media.
Traditional media like magazine or TV ads generally use one-way communication from sender to receiver, who the marketer hopes will buy the product advertised. A little word-of-mouth chatting may occur among the "passive receivers" but communications generally end with the receiver (p. 373).
The strategic marketing process and the communications process running from sender to receiver -- Social media.
Social media deliberately seek to ensure that the message does not end with an individual receiver. Instead, the goal is to reach "active receivers", those who will become "influentials" and be "delighted" with the brand advertised. These will then become "evangelists", who will send messages to their online friends and the back to the advertiser about the joys of using the brand (p. 373).
What leads to the success of social media marketing?
The conversion of passive receivers of the message to active evangelists who will spread favorable messages about the brand will lead to successful social media marketing (p. 373).
How do brand manager's select/use one or more social networks?
They often need to assess 1. the number of daily visitors to the website and 2. the characteristics of these visitors (p. 373).
Performance measures for social media divided into what categories?
- 1. Those linked to inputs or costs and
- 2. those tied to the outputs or revenues resulting from social media (p. 375)
What are three performance measures that are linked to inputs or costs?
These three measures are Cost per Thousand (CPM), Cost per Click (CPC), Cost per Action (CPA) (p. 375).
Performance measures linked to outputs or revenues are reported in terms of what?
These measures often tie to output results in terms of fans, friends, followers, or visitors to a social network site which can be a first step to estimating the sales revenue generated (p. 376).
What are fans?
They are the number of people who have opted in to a brand's messages through a social media platform at a given time (p. 376).
What does the term share of voice mean?
It is the brand's share or percentage of all the online social media chatter related to, say, its product category or a topic (p. 376).
What are page views?
They are the number of times a Facebook Page is loaded in a given time period (p. 376).
What are visitors?
They are the total number of visitors to a Facebook Page in a given time period; if someone visits three times in one day, she is counted three times (p. 376).
What are unique visitors?
They are the total number of unique visitors to a Facebook Page in a given time period; if someone visits three time in one day, they are only counted once (p. 376).
How is average page views per visitor calculated?
It is calculated by dividing the page views by visitors in a given time period (p. 376).
What is interaction rate?
The number of people who interact with a Post ("like", make a comment, and so on) divided by the total number of people seeing the Post (p. 376).
What is the click-through rate (CTR)?
It is the percentage of recipients who have clicked on a link on the Page to visit a specific site (p. 376).
Define fan source
It is where a social network following comes from - with fans coming from a friend being more valuable than those coming from an ad (p. 376).
What is a smart system?
It is a computer-cased network that triggers actions by sensing changes in the real or digital world (p. 378)
small, downloadable software programs that can run on smartphones and tablet devices (p. 378).
What is mobile marketing and what has led to its increase?
This convergence of the real and digital worlds has resulted in increasing use of mobile marketing, any marketing activity conducted through several internet networks to which consumers are continuously connected using a personal mobile device (p. 380).
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