Blood lecture.

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ashleesumilat
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290506
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Blood lecture.
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2014-12-03 00:34:49
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blood grossanatomy anatomy
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Questions from the blood lecture
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  1. What are the formed elements of blood?
    • 1) RBCs
    • 2) WBCs
    • 3) Platelets
  2. What is the fluid that remains after a blood clot forms/fluid withOUT clotting factors?
    Serum
  3. What are the components of the buffy coat?
    • Leukocytes
    • Platelets
  4. What two forms does CO2 travel as in the blood?
    • 1) carried in solution as CO2 or HCO3-
    • 2) bound to hemoglobin
  5. What is the main way that O2 travels in the blood?
    hemoglobin
  6. Roles of blood
    • - distribution of nutrients
    • - collection and removal of metabolic residues
    • - hormone distribution
    • - heat distribution and thermoregulation
    • - maintenance of acid-base balance
    • - maintenance of osmotic balance
    • - transport of leukocytes to areas where they are active in immunity
  7. What are the solutes in plasma?
    plasma proteins, nutrients, waste products, hormones and electrolytes
  8. 3 types of plasma proteins
    • 1) albumin: made in the liver; maintains osmotic pressure of blood
    • 2) α- and β-globulins: ex: transferrin, fibronectin, prothrombin, lipoproteins
    • 3) γ-globulins: immunoglobulins (antibodies) made by plasma cells (activated B lymphocytes)
    • 4) complement proteins: important in inflammation and destruction of microorganisms
    • 5) fibrinogen: made in the liver; polymerizes to form insoluble fibrin during blood clotting
  9. characteristics of RBCs
    • - flexible biconcave discs
    • - terminally differentiated
    • - lack nuclei and mitochondria
    • - survive about 120 days, removed from blood by macrophages
  10. Granulocyte characteristics
    • - possess polymorphic nuclei with 2+ lobes
    • - terminally differentiated with short lifespan in the blood
    • - Golgi and RER poorly developed, few mitochondria
    • - die by apoptosis – remains consumed by macrophages
  11. Examples of agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  12. Movements of leukocytes (& role of cytokines)
    • 1. Cytokines:
    • - released at the site of injury or infection
    • - cause loosening of junctions between endothelial cells in post-capillary venules and appearance of P-selectin on luminal surface of endothelial cells
    • 2. P-selectin receptors on leukocytes interact with P-selectin on venules --> cause leukocytes to slow down
    • 3. cytokines cause expression of adhesion factors on leukocytes, causing them to attach to the walls of venules
    • 4. leukocytes exit blood stream by diapedesis
    • 5. chemotactic agents released from bacteria attract neutrophils
  13. Characteristics of neutrophils
    • - most abundant type in blood
    • - first leukocytes to arrive at site of infection
    • - lobed nuclei, often demonstrating Barr body in females
    • - granules: specific granules & azurophilic granules
    • - contain glycogen --> can function in anaerobic environment
    • - phagocytose bacteria and other particles
    • - short lifespan (hours in blood, several days in CT)
  14. Characteristics of eosinophils
    • - lobed nucleus
    • - large red specific granules contain “major basic protein” (proteoglycan 2/PRG2)
    • - cytotoxic effect on parasitic worms and protozoa
    • - phagocytose antigen-antibody complexes, modulate inflammatory responses, mediate allergic reactions and asthma
  15. Characteristics of basophils
    • - lobed nucleus
    • - specific granules contain histamine and other mediators of inflammation
    • - granules metachromatic because of heparin and other sulfated glycosaminoglycans
    • - have IgE receptors; secrete contents of granules in response to antigens
    • - if found in bloodstream: basophils // if found in CT: mast cells
  16. Characteristics of lymphocytes
    • - spherical or indented condensed nucleus; sparse cytoplasm
    • - contain azurophilic granules, few organelles
    • types:
    • T lymphocytes — adaptive immune system
    • B lymphocytes — adaptive immune system
    • NK (natural killer) cells — innate immune system
    • - perform various immune functions
    • - lifespan varies from a few days to many years (memory cells)
    • - *only leukocytes which can return to bloodstream after exiting by diapedesis
  17. Characteristics of monocytes
    • - nucleus large, eccentric, oval/kidney-shaped/U-shaped with nucleolus
    • - chromatin not condensed—euchromatic
    • - cytoplasm lightly basophilic with small azurophilic granules
    • - small amounts of RER, free polyribosomes, small mitochondria, Golgi
    • - microvilli and pinocytic vesicles present
    • - precursor of macrophages and other MPS (mononuclear phagocytic system) cells
  18. 4 regions of platelets
    • 1. peripheral zone: membrane + glycocalyx
    • 2. structural zone: microtubules, actin filaments, myosin
    • 3. organelle zone: center of platelet, contains organelles and granules:
    • - α granules contain fibrinogen, coagulation factors, plasminogen, PDGF, etc.
    • - δ granules contain ADP/ATP, serotonin, histamine
    • - γ granules are similar to lysosomes, containing hydrolytic enzymes
    • 4. membrane zone: two membrane channels
    • open canalicular system; dense tubular system
  19. Sites of hemopoiesis
    • A) during embryologic and fetal development:
    • - 1st trimester: yolk sac
    • - 2nd trimester: liver and spleen
    • - 3rd trimester: transitions to bone marrow
    • B) after birth: bone marrow
  20. What is development of erythrocytes?
    erythropoiesis
  21. What is development of leukocytes?
    a) development of granulocytes
    b) development of monocytes?
    c) development of lymphocytes
    • Leukopoiesis // 
    • a) granulopoiesis
    • b) monocytopoiesis
    • c) lymphopoiesis
  22. What is development of megakaryocytes and production of platelets?
    thrombopoiesis

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