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2014-12-04 01:47:56
environment sustainability

Environment and Sustainability
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  1. Scientific paradigm
    • Paradigm - a theory that provides some kind of explanation about a certain phenomena, and suggest how to test the theory and how to develop a better understanding about a topic
    • Scientific paradigm - What is to be observed, the kind of questions that should be asked and how these questions should be framed, and finally, how the results of the interpretation should be understood
  2. Paradigm shift
    • When what scientists know change, when there is a new scientific truth
    • Can happen when there are anomalies
    •  In order to have a paradigm shift, you have to present the anomalies, AND provide an alternative
  3. What is the connection between paradigms and environmental issues?
    • we need to understand the nature of scientific knowledge so that we can properly address environmental issues
    • global society and global systems that affect the environment, run under paradigms
  4. Dominant social paradigm
    • western science and technology is the most reliable form of knowledge (objective, neutral and true)
    • the most important human goal is the pursuit of economic growth
    • humans are separate from, and superior to all other life forms
    • the environment is a limitless storehouse of resources at the disposal of human progress
  5. Anthropocentism
    • part of the dominant social paradigm
    • regarding humankind as the most important element of existence
  6. Ecocentrism
    • the ecosystem itself is central and the most important part of existence
    • it is an emerging paradigm
  7. What are the two main approaches to challenging the dominant social paradigm?
    • critiques from within the west
    • consider alternative knowledge systems
  8. Indigenous knowledge
    • an important resource for knowledge about the ecosystem
    • knowledge that is unique to a certain culture or society
    • importance of reclaiming indigenous knowledge for paradigm shift
    • an alternative knowledge system to challenge the dominant paradigm
  9. Claims making
    • how claims are made
    • grounds (proof that the problem exists)->warrants-justifications (horrific, morally wrong, etc)->conclusions (so what to do about it)
    • successful claims are distinctive, relevant, familiar, popular, media attention grabbing, symbolic or visually dramatic
  10. I=PAT
    • Impact on the environment/demand for resources =
    • population
    • affluence
    • technology
  11. greenwashing
    • the process of making unwarranted or overblown claims of sustainability or environmental friendliness in an attempt to gain market share
    • deception, used to promote the perception that an organization's products or policies are environmentally friendly
    • they promise more environmental benefit than they actually deliver
    • there is a problem because this kind of advertising is not tightly regulated
  12. deep greenwash
    a campaign to assuage the concern of the public, deflect blame away from polluting corporations, and promote voluntary measures over bona fide regulation
  13. genuine progress indicator
    • the well being of a region
    • how well we are doing as individuals, families, communities, and as a province
    • using 51 indicators, more factors are included than in GDP
  14. biodiversity
    • The variety of life on earth and the natural patterns it forms
    • Promotes sustainability in that it makes ecosystems more stable, and
    • provides ecosystem services to humans
  15. ecosystem distress syndrome
    • When measuring ecosystem health
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Reduced productivity
    • Leaching of soil nutrients
    • Success of invasive species
    • Increased contaminants, disease, etc
  16. virtual water
    • water-stressed countries limit agriculture to reduce water demand
    • the imported food is referred to as virtual water
  17. privatization of water
    • sell water resources to multinational countries
    • improvements in efficiency and service qualities of utilities
    • BUT prices become raised, everyone has a right to water so should not be prizatized
    • privatization can be used just to pay for technology
  18. commodification/commoditization (water)
    • transforming water from a public good, into a tradable commodity (economic good)
    • goal of water initiatives is to reduce commodification and privatization, otherwise, the people who cannot afford it will have it cut off
  19. Water reuse, reclaimed water
    reuse water to be used in agriculture, and some back into the drinking water system
  20. public-private partnerships
    • operated and funded by a partnership of government and one or more private sector companies
    • benefits of new technology, industry expertise
    • can reintroduce undesirable aspects of privatization
  21. Ecological or environmental citizenship
    • A means of pressuring people to act as good citizens so that they take responsibility for their actions on the environment, and overall change their environmental attitudes
    • Encourages people to think about their behaviour in the context of justice and injustice
    • It is a way of changing attitude, in order to bring about sustainable development
  22. renewable energy
    • energy that comes from resources that can be naturally replenished, such as sunlight and wind
    • since the 1990s, the world energy use has grown by 50%
  23. ethical oil
    • oil that is ethically and strategically superior because it does not support regime, as is the case in some countries
    • Alberta oil, developed by private companies, abiding by the law, involves many environmental reclamation projects
    • Alberta oil sands do not have a significant impact, the landscape is very vast
    • compared to other energy projects, the Alberta oil sands are not that bad
  24. ecosystem and human health approach
    • concern for air quality, waste management, skin cancer (from ozone depletion), toxins in the water and soil, other pollutants
    • Links between ecosystem disruption and human health and well-being
    • PARADIGM shift in understanding human/environmental relations and dependencies
  25. environmental justice
    • the right to a safe, healthy, clean, productive, sustainable environment for all
    • everyone should have equal rights to environmental protection
    • equal access to environmental goods and services
    • this approach to sustainability is needed when marginalized people are differentially affected by environmental issues
  26. environmental racism
    • people of different race or colour being exposed in an unfair way to environmental threats
    • discrimination in environmental policy making
    • excluding people from leadership roles in environmental movement based on their race
  27. ecosystem valuation
    • giving values to ecosystem goods and services
    • BENEFITS- will encourage policy-makers to take action, help to prioritize which ecosystems should be taken care of
    • DISADVANTAGES-  implies that the ecosystem is only worth preserving if it can be made profitable, if market prices change, would the value of a certain ecosystem service change? sometimes the services are not "beneficial" to us, so how would we go about protecting those?
  28. commodity chain analysis
    • how food production can be affected by different agents, from the time it is produced to its final destination
    • production and consumption cross borders
    • producer-driver commodity chain or buyer-driven commodity chain, depending on who shapes the production and consumption of the final product
  29. ecosystem services
    • free services that nature provides that support societies and have great economic value
    • ecocentric paradigm shift approach
  30. fair trade
    • a social movement, to help producer in developing countries achieve better, and more sustainable trading conditions
    • higher cost and higher social and environmental standards
  31. Limits to growth
    • was a publication, first published in 1972
    • modeling to see when the economy and population would collapse
    • collapse of the economy, and population, happen when if changes are not made in social behavior and technological progress
    • the modeling shows that we are on the cusp of collapse
    • collapse caused mostly by resource constraints and the diversion of capital to the resource sector
    • industrial per capita output falls first, followed by food and services
  32. sustainable development
    • meeting the needs of today, without compromising the needs of future generations
    • Approaches to sustainable development include...
    • ecohealth approach
    • ecological justice approach
    • economic approach
    • humanities/social science approach
    • ecological approach
  33. land ethic
    • defines would the relationship should be between people and nature
    • set the stage for the modern conservation movement
    • guides the actions of when humans make changes to the land
    • Leopold says that ethics should include the land as well
    • expands the concept of community to include land, soil, and the rest of the biotic community