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The replication of DNA occurs during the ________ phase of interphase
Initiation of translation begins with a tRNA binding
to a ________ on mRNA
________ is the process of by which the DNA code of a
single gene is converted into a complimentary strand of mRNA
Following replication of
chromosomes, sister chromatids are held together by a ________.
Human chromosomes are made
up of DNA and proteins called ________, which help organize the DNA and give
structure to the chromosomes.
Short segments of DNA that
contain codes for the structure of one or more proteins are ________.
Alterations in DNA, called
________, create differences between individuals and populations.
The beginning of each gene in DNA is marked by the
presence of a unique base sequence called the ________.
________ is the process by
which a cell becomes different from its parent or sister cell.
The primary transcript that
results from transcription must be modified before it can be translated;
nucleotide sequences that actually form the mRNA and contain the genetic
information are ________.
Anticodons are located on
During mitosis, the mitotic
spindle forms during ________ (which phase?).
Meiosis in females is not
complete until ________ occurs.
The ________ checkpoint checks to make sure the DNA
was replicated correctly and that the cell is large enough
A ________ forms during
cytokinesis as contractile filaments in the cell tighten.
Fertilization is completed
when the sperm nucleus fuses with the ________.
The cell formed by the union
of egg and sperm during fertilization is the ________.
Following fertilization, if a ball of embryonic cells
divides into two masses before differentiation has begun, ________ twins
For sperm to be able to penetrate the zona pellucida
of the egg, enzymes are released from the ________.
The process of a cell going
from an unspecialized function to a specialized function is called ________.
The formation of the
________ cavity and the differentiation of the embryonic disk into ectoderm and
endoderm occurs at the end of the pre-embryonic
period of development.
As cell division continues, the 32 cell ________
develops into the blastocyst.
The first three tissues to form in the embryo, called
germ layers, are the ________, ________, and ________.
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
The ________ becomes the
blood vessels in the umbilical cord.
The extra-embryonic membrane known as the ________ is the
source of germ cells that eventually develop into gametes
In order for testes and testosterone to be produced
the ________ gene must be present on the Y chromosome
During labor, full dilation of the cervix signifies
the end of the ________ stage.
Ejection of milk from the breasts is caused by the
The period of childhood development that occurs during
the first month of life is called the ________ period.
The important organ systems , that cause death if they
fail, are the brain, the cardiovascular system, and the ________ system
Technique of using plasmid DNA to insert another
species DNA into a bacterium or plant is called ________.
The science that involves the planned modification,
insertion, or deletion of genes from the genetic makeup of an organism is
In order to synthesize DNA in a laboratory, the enzyme
________ must be used to facilitate the addition of nucleotides on the new
A ________ is one that reads the same from left to
right on one strand of DNA as it does from right to left on the other strand
In recombinant DNA
technology, DNA is cut at specific nucleotide sequences by ________ enzymes.
The technique used to make millions of identical
copies of DNA from a small sample in a test tube is ________.
polymerase chain reaction
Organisms that have been genetically engineered to
carry one or more foreign genes are known as ________ organisms
According to the text, the
"workhorses" of the genetic engineering industry are ________.
Transgenic bacteria are
presently used to produce ________ which can be administered to humans or other
animals to prepare the immune system for a possible infection by a disease-causing organism.
Short single-stranded pieces of DNA called ________ attach to
a DNA template to serve as the beginning site of DNA replication.
The process of producing pharmaceuticals in farm
animals is ________.
The insertion of human genes into human cells to treat
a disease is known as ________.
Gene therapy requires that genes be delivered to cells
and incorporated into the cells' DNA; transporters of these genes are known as
Programmed cell death in somatic cells is known as
________ is a useful technique in criminal
investigations because humans contain many copies of repeating or junk
sequences, the length of which can be unique to an individual.
Alternative versions of the same gene are ________.
A ________ refers to the complete set of genes in the
chromosomes of an individual.
In ________, the phenotype of the heterozygous
genotype is an intermediate between the phenotype of either homozygous genotype
If the two alleles of a particular gene pair are the
same, the individual is ________ for that gene.
When someone says they have blue eyes, they are
describing the physical appearance of a trait, or their ________.
A phenotype is determined by ________ and ________.
genotype, environmental factors
According to Mendel's law of ________, genes of a gene
pair separate from one another during the formation of gametes.
Genes for different traits located on the same
chromosome are called ________.
The inheritance of a trait that is determined by many
genes acting together is ________ inheritance.
Failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids
to separate properly is called ________.
A ________ occurs when a piece of chromosome breaks
off or is lost.
Genes located on the same chromosome are not always
inherited together because of the process of ________, which occurs during
meiosis; this process "reshuffles" the genes.
A display of an individual's chromosomes is known as a
During embryological development, if a certain gene on
the ________ chromosome is activated during the sixth or seventh week of
development, the embryo will develop into a male.
The process by which a piece of a chromosome breaks
off and then attaches to another chromosome is ________.