bio 5 ex

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KinjoSushi
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290521
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bio 5 ex
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2014-12-03 04:20:31
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bio ex 5
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  1. The replication of DNA occurs during the ________ phase of interphase
    S (synthesis)
  2. Initiation of translation begins with a tRNA binding
    to a ________ on mRNA
    start codon
  3. ________ is the process of by which the DNA code of a
    single gene is converted into a complimentary strand of mRNA
    Transcription
  4. Following replication of
    chromosomes, sister chromatids are held together by a ________.
    centromere
  5. Human chromosomes are made
    up of DNA and proteins called ________, which help organize the DNA and give
    structure to the chromosomes.
    histones
  6. Short segments of DNA that
    contain codes for the structure of one or more proteins are ________.
    genes
  7. Alterations in DNA, called
    ________, create differences between individuals and populations.
    mutations
  8. The beginning of each gene in DNA is marked by the
    presence of a unique base sequence called the ________.
    promoter
  9. ________ is the process by
    which a cell becomes different from its parent or sister cell.
    Differentiation
  10. The primary transcript that
    results from transcription must be modified before it can be translated;
    nucleotide sequences that actually form the mRNA and contain the genetic
    information are ________.
    exons
  11. Anticodons are located on
    ________.
    tRNA
  12. During mitosis, the mitotic
    spindle forms during ________ (which phase?).
    prophase
  13. Meiosis in females is not
    complete until ________ occurs.
    fertilization
  14. The ________ checkpoint checks to make sure the DNA
    was replicated correctly and that the cell is large enough
    G2
  15. A ________ forms during
    cytokinesis as contractile filaments in the cell tighten.
    cleavage furrow
  16. Fertilization is completed
    when the sperm nucleus fuses with the ________.
    egg nucleus
  17. The cell formed by the union
    of egg and sperm during fertilization is the ________.
    zygote
  18. Following fertilization, if a ball of embryonic cells
    divides into two masses before differentiation has begun, ________ twins
    result.
    identical
  19. For sperm to be able to penetrate the zona pellucida
    of the egg, enzymes are released from the ________.
    acrosome
  20. The process of a cell going
    from an unspecialized function to a specialized function is called ________.
    differentiation
  21. The formation of the
    ________ cavity and the differentiation of the embryonic disk into ectoderm and
    endoderm occurs at the end of the pre-embryonic
    period of development.
    amniotic
  22. As cell division continues, the 32 cell ________
    develops into the blastocyst.
    morula
  23. The first three tissues to form in the embryo, called
    germ layers, are the ________, ________, and ________.
    ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  24. The ________ becomes the
    blood vessels in the umbilical cord.
    allantois
  25. The extra-embryonic membrane known as the ________ is the
    source of germ cells that eventually develop into gametes
    yolk sac
  26. In order for testes and testosterone to be produced
    the ________ gene must be present on the Y chromosome
    SRY
  27. During labor, full dilation of the cervix signifies
    the end of the ________ stage.
    dilation
  28. Ejection of milk from the breasts is caused by the
    hormone ________.
    oxytocin
  29. The period of childhood development that occurs during
    the first month of life is called the ________ period.
    neonatal
  30. The important organ systems , that cause death if they
    fail, are the brain, the cardiovascular system, and the ________ system
    respiratory
  31. Technique of using plasmid DNA to insert another
    species DNA into a bacterium or plant is called ________.
    vector transfer
  32. The science that involves the planned modification,
    insertion, or deletion of genes from the genetic makeup of an organism is
    ________.
    genetic engineering
  33. In order to synthesize DNA in a laboratory, the enzyme
    ________ must be used to facilitate the addition of nucleotides on the new
    strand.
    DNA polymerase
  34. A ________ is one that reads the same from left to
    right on one strand of DNA as it does from right to left on the other strand
    palindromic sequence
  35. In recombinant DNA
    technology, DNA is cut at specific nucleotide sequences by ________ enzymes.
    restriction
  36. The technique used to make millions of identical
    copies of DNA from a small sample in a test tube is ________.
    polymerase chain reaction
  37. Organisms that have been genetically engineered to
    carry one or more foreign genes are known as ________ organisms
    transgenic
  38. According to the text, the
    "workhorses" of the genetic engineering industry are ________.
    bacteria
  39. Transgenic bacteria are
    presently used to produce ________ which can be administered to humans or other
    animals to prepare the immune system for a possible infection by a disease-causing organism.
    vaccines
  40. Short single-stranded pieces of DNA called ________ attach to
    a DNA template to serve as the beginning site of DNA replication.
    primers
  41. The process of producing pharmaceuticals in farm
    animals is ________.
    gene pharming
  42. The insertion of human genes into human cells to treat
    a disease is known as ________.
    gene therapy
  43. Gene therapy requires that genes be delivered to cells
    and incorporated into the cells' DNA; transporters of these genes are known as
    ________.
    vectors
  44. Programmed cell death in somatic cells is known as
    ________.
    apoptosis
  45. ________ is a useful technique in criminal
    investigations because humans contain many copies of repeating or junk
    sequences, the length of which can be unique to an individual.
    DNA fingerprinting
  46. Alternative versions of the same gene are ________.
    alleles
  47. A ________ refers to the complete set of genes in the
    chromosomes of an individual.
    genome
  48. In ________, the phenotype of the heterozygous
    genotype is an intermediate between the phenotype of either homozygous genotype
    incomplete dominance
  49. If the two alleles of a particular gene pair are the
    same, the individual is ________ for that gene.
    homozygous
  50. When someone says they have blue eyes, they are
    describing the physical appearance of a trait, or their ________.
    phenotype
  51. A phenotype is determined by ________ and ________.
    genotype, environmental factors
  52. According to Mendel's law of ________, genes of a gene
    pair separate from one another during the formation of gametes.
    segregation
  53. Genes for different traits located on the same
    chromosome are called ________.
    linked genes
  54. The inheritance of a trait that is determined by many
    genes acting together is ________ inheritance.
    polygenic
  55. Failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids
    to separate properly is called ________.
    nondisjunction
  56. A ________ occurs when a piece of chromosome breaks
    off or is lost.
    deletion
  57. Genes located on the same chromosome are not always
    inherited together because of the process of ________, which occurs during
    meiosis; this process "reshuffles" the genes.
    crossing-over
  58. A display of an individual's chromosomes is known as a
    ________.
    karyotype
  59. During embryological development, if a certain gene on
    the ________ chromosome is activated during the sixth or seventh week of
    development, the embryo will develop into a male.
    Y
  60. The process by which a piece of a chromosome breaks
    off and then attaches to another chromosome is ________.
    translocation

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