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What are common associations with A and V syndromes?
- infantile strab
- acquired CN4 palsy
- TED with IR contraction
What are some common complaints of alphabet syndromes?
- discomfort reading in downgaze
What is characteristic of A sydnrome?
hoz deviation differs by >10Pd
What is deviation amount of V sydnrome?
>15pd difference in hoz deviation
Location vs amount of alphabet?
- magnitude is not important
- location is- as how px uses their eyes
V pattern ST?
- underaction of SO
- downgaze: more eso-> no abduction
- upgaze: less eso-> normal IO
IO weakness of overacting SO
Management of alphabet syndromes?
- surgery: only if excessive fusional demands or cosmesis
- VT: if some fusional vergence ranges
- oblique prisms:
Features of DVD?
- covered eye elevates and extorts- no changes with ab/duction
- bilateral, asym
- assoc: IST, latent nystagmus
- bilateral paresis of depressors
- tx: surgery
- overaction of IO, 2ndy underacting SO: CN3 innervation overflow
- ADD = ELEVATION
- LHyp = in R gaze
- R HYP = in L gaze
- no vert in primary
- tx: rule out other causes, surgery