ARC Test 3

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tigre671
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290541
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ARC Test 3
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2014-12-03 13:32:39
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ARC Test
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  1. Laugier
    • Wrote "Speaking Architecture" (l'Architecture parlent)
    • -Beginning of modern architecture
    • -Advocates honest architecture: Greek over Roman
    • -Nothing in a building that you cannot give a reason for
    • -Column, entablature, pediment
  2. Massachusetts State House
    • Boston, MA, 1776, Charles Bulfinch
  3. Circus
    • Bath, England. 1754, John Wood
    • -2 major terraces, 1 was circus
    • -Looks like an inside-out colosseum
    • -3 stacked levels
    • -33 houses
  4. Isaac Newton's Centotaph
    • -"Paper architecture"
    • -Sphere, 500 ft in diameter
    • -Represents the heavens 
    • -Holes in the ceiling for "divine light"
    • -Shrine
  5. Royal Salt Works
    • Arc-et-Senans, 1775, Ledoux
    • -Next to a forrest for ease of access to wood
    • -Reflects order
    • -Hierarchy to the building
    • -Semi-circle plan but in a bit of an oval, reflects the suns path
    • -Gated royal compound
    • -Blocky columns
    • -Cardinal direction orientation
    • -Classical order in a theatrical light
    • -Stone sculpture work inside and out to show building's purpose by referring to salt making
  6. Thomas Jefferson
    • -"Paladio was the bible"
    • -Wanted cultural and political freedom from England
  7. Monticello II
    • Charlotesville, VA, 1796, Jefferson
    • -On a hill
    • -Treats structure like a Roman Villa
    • -Modeled it after Hotel de Salm
    • -House filled with gadgets
    • -His bed had a closet on one side and his office on the other so he could get up and work or get dressed
    • -Support services (laundry, cooking) away from the main building
  8. University of Virginia
    • Charlottesville, VA, 1817, Jefferson
    • -Designed as a single square with an open end for expansion
    • -At closed end was the Rotunda
    • -Rotunda is a simplified version of the Pantheon
    • -Colonnade and walkways use tuscan order
    • -Each pavilion exhibits various architectural orders
    • -Pure temple forms (ionic, doric, corinthian)
    • -Other forms layered throughout campus
    • -Serpentine walls
  9. U.S. Capitol
    • Washington D.C. 1793, Thorton, Latrobe, Bulfinch
    • -Columns from Greek doric order
    • -Triple shell dome, middle shell was iron
    • -Dome inspired from Tempietto
  10. John Soane House
    • London 1812, Soane
    • -Town house
    • -Architecture as a laboratory, Constantly remodeled rooms
    • -Fills spaces with "architectural knickknacks"
  11. Altes Museum
    • Berlin 1824, Schinkel
    • -Pantheon-like dome
  12. Second Bank of the U.S.
    • Philadelphia, PA, 1818, William Strickland
    • -Simple, cheap form of Greek architecture
    • -No sculpture, simple pediment
    • -Reduce building scale
    • -Barrel vault inside
  13. Semper
    • -Orgins of architecture
    • -Platform (Masonry)
    • -Hearth (Ceramics)
    • -Roof (Carpentry)
    • -Enclosure (Weaving)
  14. Royal Pavillion
    • Brighton, 1815, John Nash
    • -Designed in an exotic Indian (Mughal) style
    • -Vacation retreat for royalty
    • -Iron onion domes
    • -Chinese elements inside
    • -Like an exotic tent structure
    • -Playful exotic theme even in servant's quarters
    • -Was a historical WWII hospital ward for British-Indian soldiers
  15. *Houses of Parliament
    • London, 1840, Charles Barry
    • -Rebuilt after a fire
    • -English gothic style
    • -Charles Barry hired Pugin for detail drawings
    • -Tower is 345 ft tall
    • -Gothic detail inside
    • -Like being in a church
    • -Pugin thinks the church and architecture should mix
    • -Gothic architecture as inspiring religion
    • -Right on the River Thames
  16. Baltimore Cathedral
    • Baltimore, 1806, Latrobe
    • -
  17. Contrasts
    • Book by Pugin
    • -Religion very important to him
    • -Pictures portraying industrial revolution as taking religion out and making society worse
    • -"All ornament should enrich building construction"
    • -Form follows function
    • -Even small details should be meaningful
    • -Interior and exterior of building should express the building's purpose
    • -Defects of modern architecture are because of a departure from past ideas
    • -Buildings should respect heratige
  18. Baltimore Cathedral
    • Baltimore, 1806, Latrobe
    • -Pantheon-like dome, 2 shells
  19. Morse-Libby House
    • Portland Maine, 1859, Henru Austin
  20. Trinity Church
    • New York, NY 1839, Richard Upjohn
    • -Very tall steeple
    • -Organ damaged in WTC colapse
  21. *Crystal Palace
    • London 1851, Joseph Paxton
    • -Used iron and glass
    • -Built w/ prefabrication
    • -1st building of it's kind: An exhibition hall
    • -1st world's fair, meant to be an agricultural fair but also showed off arts and industry
    • -18,000 ft long, 800,000 ft/squared
    • -Built in 7 weeks by 2,000 workers
    • -Standardization of materials
    • -Carts build to ride on iron frame like trains on rails and lay glass
    • -Hollow iron columns provided drainage
    • -First use of mass produced parts
    • -First example of modern architecture
  22. Viollet-le-Duc
    • -Ideas-
    • -Father of historic preservation
    • -A prominent architecture critic
    • -Pro gothic architecture
    • -Architecture should express structure
    • -France as having true architecture (when it had  mostly gothic)
    • -Was a professor at Ecole des Beaux-Arts, a very prominent school
    • -Completed many restorations such as Notre Dame and Madeline Vezalay
    • -Wrote many books
    • -Was interested in iron construction because it could show honest structure easily
  23. Ecole des Beaux-Arts
    • One of the most influential architecture schools
    • -1863, Paris
  24. Georges Eugene Baron
    • 1809-1891
    • -City planner who was ordered by Napoleon to carry out Paris' reconstruction
    • -Building codes that wanted no balconies and called for roof slopes
    • -Rich lived on the second floor and the poor at the very top
  25. Mansard Roofs
    • -Sloped and hipped roofs
    • -Popular in Paris because they avoided taxes on additional floors
  26. *Paris Opera
    • Paris, 1861, Charles Garnier
    • -Was a new landmark
    • -Combined many styles
    • -Built for newly rich Parisans
    • -Designed to allow people to see and be seen
    • -Large open spaces inside to allow seeing across the room
    • -Grand and decadent spaces
    • -Iconic staircase that branches and allows onlookers to see
    • -Ornamentation inside
  27. Eiffel Tower
    • Built for the 1889 Paris exposition by Eiffel
    • -Was only meant to stand for 10 years
    • -Form followed function
    • -Not considered architecture by many
    • -People thought it was ugly
  28. Metro Stations
    • Guimard 1900
    • -Series of entrances to underground metro stations
    • -All around the world
  29. Bibliotheque Nationale
    • Labrouste, 1860, Paris
    • -Made of iron and glass
    • -Archways inside
    • -Masonry outside
  30. John Ruskin
    • -Anti-catholic
    • -Critic of capitalism
    • -Social critic, writer, artist
    • -Likes the Italian gothic but hates Italian classical
    • -Likes details, surfaces, aesthetics
    • -Architecture and morality are linked
    • -Good architecture=Good people, bad architecture= bad people
    • -Greek= good, Roman= bad
    • -Separates buildings from architecture
    • -Begins the victorian gothic style
    • -Decoration to come from materials
    • -Wrote 7 lamps of architecture
  31. 7 Lamps of Architecture
    • 1849 by John Ruskin
    • -Power
    • -Beauty
    • -Memory
    • -Sacrifice: Architecture vs. buildings & building type. Self discipline
    • -Obedience: Architecture has history, politics, and religion of a nation
    • -Life: Bad work by a craftsman is better than good work by a machine. Emphasis on soul of craftsman in his work
    • -Truth: No iron or machine made decoration. Don't paint materials to make them seem like another type of material. Architecture should not suggest a structure other than the one used
  32. All Saints on Margret
    • 1849, William Butterfield, London
    • -Wants to bring dignity to brick
    • -3 colors of brick used
    • -Surface decor
    • -Marble/tile inside
    • -1 aisle
    • -Awkward dimensions
  33. S Pancras Station
    • London, 1864, William Henry Barlow
    • -Hotel and station connected together to service tired travelers

  34. Midland Hotel
    • 1868, G. G. Scott, London
    • -Built to service tired travelers
  35. Victoria Terminus
    • Mumbai, 1878, Frederick Stevens
    • -1,000 trains a day
    • -Dome on top even though it is in the gothic style
    • -A heavy building
    • -Modeled after the midland hotel
  36. *UVA Rotunda
    • -Corinthian and doric columns
    • -Chinese lattice
    • -Red brick
    • -Building in an "inviting" position
    • -Hierarchy in layout
    • -Was burnt down at one time
    • -Used to be a library 
    • -Heavy Palladian influence
    • -Serpentine bricks were relevant b/c cost effective

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