health promotion of the preschooler
Card Set Information
health promotion of the preschooler
lccc nursing peds preschooler
For Gosselin's Final
What is the most significant lifestyle change fir the preschooler?
Preschooler is ages 3-5 and they are preparing for school
Experience brief and prolonged separation
Use language and mental symbolization
Increased attention span and memory
What biologic development occurs in the preschooler?
Physical growth slows and stabilizes
Average weight gain remains about 5lb/yr
Average height increases 2.5-3 in/yr
Body systems mature and stabilize; can adjust to moderate stress and change
What gross and fine motor behavior occurs in the preschooler?
: walking, running, climbing, and jumping well established
Refinement in eye-hand and muscle coordination
: drawing, artwork, skillful manipulation
What psychological development occurs in the preschooler?
: Initiative vs Guilt
Chief psychosocial task of preschool period
Feelings of guilt, anxiety, and fear may result from thoughts that different from expected behavior
Development of conscience (superego)
Learning right from wrong, moral development
What stage of Piaget is the preschooler in?
Preoperational phase spans 2-7 years and is divided into two stages
: 2-4 yrs
Intuitive thought phase
: 4-7 yrs
Shifts from egocentric thought to social awareness
Able to consider other viewpoints
Egocentricity still evident
What cognitive development occurs in the preschoolers?
Readiness for school and scholastic learning by age 5-6
Language continues to develop
Concept of causality beginning to develop
Concept of time incompletely understood
Continued use of "magical thinking"
What moral development occurs in the preschooler?
Basic level of moral judgement leading to a punishment and obedience orientation
Naive instrumental orientation- actions to satisfy own needs and less concern of needs of others
Concrete sense of justice and fairness
What spiritual development occurs in the preschooler?
Knowledge of faith and religion learned from significant others and religious practices
Development of conscience strongly linked to spiritual development
May interpret illness as punishment from God
How does body image develop in the preschooler?
Increasing comprehension of "desirable" appearance
Aware of racial identity, differences in appearances, and biases
Poorly defined body boundaries
: fear that if skin is "broken" all the blood and insides will come out
Frightened by intrusive experiences
How does sexuality develop in the preschooler?
Form strong attachment to the opposite-sex parent while identifying with the same-sex parent
Become concerned with modesty
Sex role imitation, "dressing up like mommy or daddy"
Sexual exploration more pronounced
Questions arise about sexual reproduction
What is the social development of a preschooler?
Individualization-separation process is completed
Overcome stranger anxiety and fear of separation from parents
Still need parental security and guidance
Security from familiar objects
Play therapy beneficial for working through fears, anxieties, and fantasies
How does language develop in the preschooler?
Major mode of communication and social interaction
Vocabulary increases dramatically between ages 2-5 yrs
Complexity of language uses increases between 2-5 yrs (3-4 yr means 3-4 word sentences, 5+ word sentences by age 5)
What kind of play does the preschooler partake in?
Associative play (group play with goals and organization)
Imaginative play and playmates
*Limit TV and computer time
What is the preschoolers personal-social behavior?
Willing to please
Have internalized values and standards of family and culture
May begin to challenge parental values
How do you determine a child's readiness for school?
Developmental screening tools may be used in preschool and kindergarten, however there is no absolute indicator
How can discuss sex education with a preschooler?
Find out what the children already know and think
Avoid over-answering the question
Sexual exploration and sexual curiosity
What things are preschoolers usually afraid of?
Being left alone
Objects or persons associated with pain
Techniques for desensitization should be used to overcome fears
How do preschoolers deal with stress? How can this be controlled?
Minimum amounts of stress can be beneficial
Parental awareness of signs of stress in child;s life
Prevention of stress
Schedule adequate rest
Prepare child for upcoming changes to maximize coping strategies
Why do preschoolers display aggression?
Aggression is any behavior that attempts to hurt person or destroy property
May be influences by biologic, sociocultural, and familiar variable
Factors that increase aggressive behavior include gender, frustration, modeling, and reinforcement
Positive reinforcement works better than negative reinforcement
What speech problems may occur with the preschooler?
Stuttering and stammering
: articulation problems
Denver Articulation Screening Examination (DASE) tool for assessing speech problems
How can you promote nutrition for the preschooler?
Caloric requirements are approx 90 kcal/kg wit <30% of diet being fat
Fluid requirements approx 100 ml/kg depending on activity and climate
Children like one food (food fads) and have strong tastes
Consume about 50% of an adult size portion
How can you promote sleep for the preschooler? What are some common sleep problems?
12 hrs of sleep per night with infrequent naps
Consistent bedtime routine
May have nightmares or sleep terrors (occur in the first few hours of sleep)
How can you promote dental health for the preschooler?
Eruption of deciduous teeth is complete
Professional care and prophylaxis to prevent caries
Nutrition to prevent caries
Child learning to brush teeth with parent's help
May need fluoride supplements (controversial)
How can you prevent injury for the preschooler?
Safety education for the child:
Stranger danger teaching
How to interact with animals
Good touch vs bad touch teaching
Car and road safety
Complete annual physical exams and immunizations
How can you provide anticipatory guidance for the families of preschoolers?
Childcare focus shifts from protection to education
Children begin questioning previous teachings of parents
Children begin to prefer companionship of peers, but still need their patients