health promotion of the preschooler

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  1. What is the most significant lifestyle change fir the preschooler?
    • Preschooler is ages 3-5 and they are preparing for school
    • Experience brief and prolonged separation
    • Use language and mental symbolization
    • Increased attention span and memory
  2. What biologic development occurs in the preschooler?
    • Physical growth slows and stabilizes
    • Average weight gain remains about 5lb/yr
    • Average height increases 2.5-3 in/yr
    • Body systems mature and stabilize; can adjust to moderate stress and change
  3. What gross and fine motor behavior occurs in the preschooler?
    • Gross motor: walking, running, climbing, and jumping well established
    • Refinement in eye-hand and muscle coordination: drawing, artwork, skillful manipulation
  4. What psychological development occurs in the preschooler?
    • Erikson: Initiative vs Guilt
    • Chief psychosocial task of preschool period
    • Feelings of guilt, anxiety, and fear may result from thoughts that different from expected behavior
    • Development of conscience (superego)
    • Learning right from wrong, moral development
  5. What stage of Piaget is the preschooler in?
    • Preoperational phase spans 2-7 years and is divided into two stages
    • Preconceptual phase: 2-4 yrs
    • Intuitive thought phase: 4-7 yrs
    • Shifts from egocentric thought to social awareness
    • Able to consider other viewpoints
    • Egocentricity still evident
  6. What cognitive development occurs in the preschoolers?
    • Readiness for school and scholastic learning by age 5-6
    • Language continues to develop
    • Concept of causality beginning to develop
    • Concept of time incompletely understood
    • Continued use of "magical thinking"
  7. What moral development occurs in the preschooler?
    • Basic level of moral judgement leading to a punishment and obedience orientation
    • Naive instrumental orientation- actions to satisfy own needs and less concern of needs of others
    • Concrete sense of justice and fairness
  8. What spiritual development occurs in the preschooler?
    • Knowledge of faith and religion learned from significant others and religious practices
    • Development of conscience strongly linked to spiritual development
    • May interpret illness as punishment from God
  9. How does body image develop in the preschooler?
    • Increasing comprehension of "desirable" appearance
    • Aware of racial identity, differences in appearances, and biases
    • Poorly defined body boundaries: fear that if skin is "broken" all the blood and insides will come out
    • Frightened by intrusive experiences
  10. How does sexuality develop in the preschooler?
    • Form strong attachment to the opposite-sex parent while identifying with the same-sex parent
    • Become concerned with modesty
    • Sex role imitation, "dressing up like mommy or daddy"
    • Sexual exploration more pronounced
    • Questions arise about sexual reproduction
  11. What is the social development of a preschooler?
    • Individualization-separation process is completed
    • Overcome stranger anxiety and fear of separation from parents
    • Still need parental security and guidance
    • Security from familiar objects
    • Play therapy beneficial for working through fears, anxieties, and fantasies
  12. How does language develop in the preschooler?
    • Major mode of communication and social interaction
    • Vocabulary increases dramatically between ages 2-5 yrs
    • Complexity of language uses increases between 2-5 yrs (3-4 yr means 3-4 word sentences, 5+ word sentences by age 5)
  13. What kind of play does the preschooler partake in?
    • Associative play (group play with goals and organization)
    • Imitative play
    • Imaginative play and playmates
    • Dramatic play
    • *Limit TV and computer time
  14. What is the preschoolers personal-social behavior?
    • Self-dressing
    • Willing to please
    • Have internalized values and standards of family and culture
    • May begin to challenge parental values
  15. How do you determine a child's readiness for school?
    Developmental screening tools may be used in preschool and kindergarten, however there is no absolute indicator
  16. How can discuss sex education with a preschooler?
    • Find out what the children already know and think
    • Be honest
    • Avoid over-answering the question
    • Sexual exploration and sexual curiosity
  17. What things are preschoolers usually afraid of?
    • Dark
    • Being left alone
    • Animals
    • Ghosts
    • Objects or persons associated with pain
    • Techniques for desensitization should be used to overcome fears
  18. How do preschoolers deal with stress? How can this be controlled?
    • Minimum amounts of stress can be beneficial
    • Parental awareness of signs of stress in child;s life
    • Prevention of stress
    • Schedule adequate rest
    • Prepare child for upcoming changes to maximize coping strategies
  19. Why do preschoolers display aggression?
    • Aggression is any behavior that attempts to hurt person or destroy property
    • May be influences by biologic, sociocultural, and familiar variable
    • Factors that increase aggressive behavior include gender, frustration, modeling, and reinforcementĀ 
    • Positive reinforcement works better than negative reinforcement
  20. What speech problems may occur with the preschooler?
    • Stuttering and stammering
    • Dyslalia: articulation problems
    • Denver Articulation Screening Examination (DASE) tool for assessing speech problems
  21. How can you promote nutrition for the preschooler?
    • Caloric requirements are approx 90 kcal/kg wit <30% of diet being fat
    • Fluid requirements approx 100 ml/kg depending on activity and climate
    • Children like one food (food fads) and have strong tastes
    • Consume about 50% of an adult size portion
  22. How can you promote sleep for the preschooler? What are some common sleep problems?
    • 12 hrs of sleep per night with infrequent naps
    • Consistent bedtime routine
    • May have nightmares or sleep terrors (occur in the first few hours of sleep)
  23. How can you promote dental health for the preschooler?
    • Eruption of deciduous teeth is complete
    • Professional care and prophylaxis to prevent caries
    • Nutrition to prevent caries
    • Child learning to brush teeth with parent's help
    • May need fluoride supplements (controversial)
  24. How can you prevent injury for the preschooler?
    • Safety education for the child:
    • Stranger danger teaching
    • How to interact with animals
    • Good touch vs bad touch teaching
    • Car and road safety
    • Firearm safety
    • Bike safety
    • Fire safety
    • Complete annual physical exams and immunizations
  25. How can you provide anticipatory guidance for the families of preschoolers?
    • Childcare focus shifts from protection to education
    • Children begin questioning previous teachings of parents
    • Children begin to prefer companionship of peers, but still need their patients
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health promotion of the preschooler
2014-12-11 18:57:38
lccc nursing peds preschooler

For Gosselin's Final
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