Health promotion of the School age Child

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  1. When is the beginning and end of the school age years?
    • 6-12 years
    • Begins with the shedding of first deciduous teeth and ends at puberty with acquisition of final permanent teeth (28-32)
  2. What biological development occurs during the school age years?
    • Height increase 2in/yr
    • Weight increase 2-3 kg/yr
    • Males and females begin to differ in size, with females maturing faster
  3. How do the different body systems mature during the school age years?
    • Bladder capacity increases (larger in females)
    • heart smaller in relation to the rest of body
    • Immune system increasingly effective
    • Bones increase in ossification
    • Physical maturity not necessarily correlated with emotional and social maturity
  4. What is prepubescence?
    • Defined as the 2yrs preceding puberty
    • Typically occurs during preadolescence
    • Varies from ages 9-12 (female about 2 yrs earlier than body)
  5. What Freudian period is the school age child in?
    • Relationships center around same-sex peers
    • Freud describes this time as the latency period of psychosexual development
  6. What Erikson stage is the school age child in?
    • Industry v. Inferiority
    • Eager to develop skills and participate in meaningful and socially useful work
    • Acquire sense of personal and interpersonal competence
    • Growing sense of independence
    • Peer approval is a strong motivator, but family is still the strongest motivator of values
    • Inferiority may derive from self or scoil environment
    • Inferiority may occur is incapable or unprepared to succeed at task
    • All children will feel some degree of inferiority for a skill they cannot master
  7. What Piaget stage is the school age child in?
    • Concrete Operations
    • Use thought processes to experience events and actions
    • Develop understanding of relationships between things and ideas
    • Able to make judgments based on reason (conceptual thinking)
    • Able to solve problems, able to master conservation
    • Able to see other's viewpoints
  8. How does the school age child develop morally?
    • Development of conscience and moral standards
    • Age 6-7: reward and punishment guide choices
    • Older School Age: able to judge an act by the intentions that prompted it
    • Rules and judgements become more founded on the needs and desires of others
    • Can treat others how they want to be treated
  9. How does the school age child develop spiritually?
    • Children think in concrete terms
    • Children expect punishment for misbehavior
    • May view illness or injury as punishment for a real or imagined misdeed
    • May not understand the concept of death until 9-10 yrs of age
  10. What social development occurs in the school age child?
    • Shift to the importance of the peer group
    • Identification with peers is a strong influence in child gaining independence from parents
    • Sex roles strongly influenced by peer relationships
  11. How does the school age child's relationships with family change?
    • Parents are primary influence in shaping the child's personality, behavior, and value system
    • Increasing independence from parent is primary goal of middle childhood
    • Children are not ready to abandon parental control
  12. What kind of play does the school age child partake in?
    • Competitive and Cooperative play (also onlooker play)
    • Involves physical skill, intellectual ability, and fantasy
    • Form groups, cliques, secret societies
    • Rules and ritual
    • Quiet games and activities as well as group/competitive sports
    • Ego mastery
  13. How does the school age child develop a self-concept?
    • A conscience awareness of a variety of self-perceptions (abilities, values, appearance, etc)
    • Importance of significant adults in shaping child's self concept
    • Positive self-concept leads to feelings of self-respect, self-confidence, and happiness
  14. How does the school age child develop their body image?
    • Generally children like physical selves less as they grow older
    • Body image influenced by significant others
    • Increased awareness of difference may influence feelings of inferiority
    • Even more modest than preschoolers
  15. How does the school experience influence the school age child?
    • School experience is second to family as a socializing agent
    • Transmission go values of the society occurs in school
    • Peer relationships become increasingly important
  16. How can you promote nutrition for the school age child?
    • A balanced diet is required for adequate growth
    • Quality of diet is directly r/t family's pattern of eating
    • Fast food and obesity become a concern
    • Child should be eating adult size portions by the end of school age
  17. How can you promote sleep and rest for the school age child?
    • School age children should be 9.5 hrs of sleep per night (but this is highly individualized)
    • May resist bed time during ages 8-11
    • 12 years and older are less resistent to bed time
  18. How can you promote exercise and activity in the school age child?
    • Kids generally enjoy competition and may participate in competitive sports
    • Helps in learning and acquiring skill sets
  19. How can you promote dental health in the school age child?
    • Eruption of all permanent teeth by the end of school age
    • Needs good dental hygiene and prevention of caries
    • Malocclusion may lead to the need for braces or retainer
    • If dental avulsion occurs, replace tooth or put in milk and go to DR ASAP
  20. How can promote sexual education in the school age child?
    • Sex play is normal part of curiosity during preadolescence
    • Middle childhood is the ideal time for sexual education
    • Information on sexual maturity and reproduction my be presented
    • Establish effective communication with parents
  21. What is the nurse's role in sexual education for school aged children?
    • The nurse should treat sex as a normal part of growth and development
    • Encourage questions and answers
    • Differentiate between sex and sexuality
    • Be open for communication with parents
  22. What is the purpose of school health?
    • Ongoing assessments, referrals, screenings
    • Routine services, emergency care safety and infection control
    • Increases knowledge of health and health habits
    • Opportunity for teaching both students and parents
  23. How can you prevent injury in the school aged child?
    • MVA is the most common cause of severe injury and death
    • Teaching on the importance of bike helmets
    • Appropriate safety equipment for all sports
    • Teach about gun safety
  24. What anticipatory guidance can you provide for families of school aged children?
    • Assist parents in adjusting to child's increasing independence
    • Parents should provide support as unobtrusively as possible
    • The child will move from narrow family relationships to broader world of relationships
Card Set:
Health promotion of the School age Child
2014-12-11 19:46:46
lccc nursing peds schoolage

For Gosselin's Final
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