Neuro - A&P

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tiffanydawnn
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29055
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Neuro - A&P
Updated:
2010-08-05 14:01:28
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neuro
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Neuro A&P Review
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  1. central nervous system (CNS)
    • brain and spinal cord
    • responsible for interpreting incoming sensory info and issuing instructions
  2. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    somatic (voluntary) and automatic (involuntary) nervous systems
  3. neuron
    basic cell of the nervous system
  4. dendrite
    impulses TO cell body
  5. axon
    impulses FROM cell body
  6. synapse
    • junction where nerve impulses move from one neuron to another
    • assisted by neurotransmitters
  7. afferent neurons
    sensory - carry impulses from skin/muscles to CNS
  8. efferent neurons
    motor - carry impulses from CNS to muscles/glands
  9. myelin sheath
    • fatty white substance that covers axons
    • no myelin sheathing in brain
  10. neurilemma
    • generates nerve cells in PNS
    • none in CNS
  11. neuoglial cells
    • support cells for neurons
    • produce CSF
    • can cause gliomas (brain tumors)
  12. neuromuscular junction
    junction between ends of large myelinated nerve fiber and skeletal muscle
  13. acetylcholine
    neurotransmitter that speeds transmission of impulses
  14. cholinesterase
    neurotransmitter that deactivates acetylcholine
  15. norepinephrine
    neurotransmitter regulates mood, dreaming, arousal from sleep
  16. dopamine
    neurotransmitter that affects motor function to depress neuron speed (also effects mood)
  17. serotonin
    neurotransmitter that induces sleep and affects mood, sensory perception, and temperature
  18. encephalon
    brain
  19. cerebrum
    • largest portion of the brain
    • four lobes:
    • --frontal
    • --parietal - top
    • --occipital - back
    • --temporal - sides
  20. corpus callosum
    connects left and right hemispheres of the cerebrum
  21. pyrmidal motor tracts
    travel from motor cortex to spine
  22. extrapyramidal motor tracts
    tracts do not meet with spine / only affect brain tissue
  23. basal ganglia
    • located deep within brain
    • responsible for fine motor movements of hands and lower extremities
  24. frontal lobe
    • high level cognitive functions
    • memory
    • voluntary movement (opposite side of body)
    • respirations, GI, BP
    • speech
  25. frontal lobe damage
    • paralysis
    • memory loss
    • inflexible thinking
    • mood changes
    • difficulty with problem solving
    • inability to express language
  26. Broca's area
    responsible for interpretive areas of speech
  27. parietal lobe
    • vision / touch
    • integration of different senses
  28. parietal lobe damage
    • inability to multitask
    • inability to write (agraphia)
    • inability to read (alexia)
    • diffuiculty with math (dyscalculia)
    • lack of eye hand coordination
  29. occipital lobe
    primarily responsible for vision
  30. occipital lobe damage
    • visual field cuts
    • difficulty identifying colors
    • drawing, reading, writing
  31. temporal lobe
    • hearing
    • memory
    • some vision
  32. temporal lobe damage
    • difficulty understanding words
    • increased interest in sexual behavior
    • aggressive behavior
  33. Wernicke's area
    involved in the understanding of written and spoken language
  34. diencephalon
    • contains hypothalamus / thalamus
    • lies beneath the cerebrum
  35. hypothalamus
    controls body temp, fluid balance, appetite, certain emotions, sympathetic/parasympathetic systems, and pituitary
  36. thalamus
    • lies above the hypothalamus
    • relays sensory impulses
    • interprets pain, light tough, pressure
  37. cerebellum
    • coordinates voluntary movement
    • maintains balance, equilibrium, and muscle tone
    • semicircular calans send messages to cerebellum
  38. cerebellum damage
    • loss of fine motor control / walking
    • vertigo
    • slurred speech
  39. brainstem
    • connects spinal cord to cerebrum
    • 3 parts:
    • --midbrain
    • --pons
    • --medulla oblongata
  40. midbrain
    • motor movement
    • relays impulses
    • auditory/visual reflexes
  41. pons
    • connects midbrain to medulla
    • controls respirations
  42. medulla
    controls heartbeat, breathing rhythm, swallowing, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, hiccups, BP
  43. brainstem damage
    • decreased vital capacity (breathing)
    • dysphagia
    • autonomic nervous system activation
    • sleep / alertness disruption
    • balance
  44. CNS protective layers
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid membrane
    • pia mater

    • epidural - above dural layer
    • subdural - below dural layer
    • subarachnoid - below arachnoid layer
  45. epidural bleeds
    more dangerous because epidural layer is supplied by middle meningeal artery (not a vein)
  46. ventricles
    • four cavities in the brain
    • contain choroid plexus - manufactures CSF
    • cushions brain
    • provides nutrients / removes waste
    • contanes glucose, urea, salts
  47. CSF
    • circulates in a closed system (brain and spinal cord)
    • damage that drains CSF causes build up on the brain (hydrocephalus)
  48. cerebral circulation
    • brain uses 20% of O2 and 750ml/min of blood
    • arterial blood supplied through internal carotids / vertebral arteries
    • travels through circle of Willis
    • drains via jugulars
  49. spinal cord
    • 17-18" cord
    • extends from brainstem to 2nd lumbar vertebra
    • conducts impulses to/from brain
    • controls reflex actions
  50. dermatomes
    each spinal cord nerve root innervates a specific area of the body
  51. peripheral nervous system
    • motor nerves
    • sensory nerves
    • ganglia outside brain
    • spinal nerves (31 pairs)
    • cranial nerves (12 pairs)
    • autonomic nervous system
  52. spinal nerves
    • 31 pairs
    • mixed (sensory, motor, both)
    • named and numbered by corresponding vertebra
  53. cranial nerves
    • 12 pairs
    • attach to brainstem
    • conduct impulses between head, neck, and brain except Vagus (thoracic and abdominal cavities)
  54. autonomic nervous system
    • maintains homeostasis
    • sympathetic & parasympathetic
  55. sympathetic nervous system
    • fight or flight
    • increased HR, BP, adrenal secretions
  56. sympathetic neurotransmitters
    • known as catecholamines
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
    • dopamine
  57. adrenergics / sympathomimetics
    meds that mimic sympathetic nervous system
  58. parasympathetic nervous system
    slows system (opposite of sympathetic)
  59. parasympatheic neurotransmitter
    acetylcholine
  60. cholinergics / parasympathomimetics
    drugs that mimic parasympathetic nervous system

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