lymphatic and immunity

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  1. What are the three major organs of the lymphatic system
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • spleen
  2. what are the three main functions of the lymphatic system
    • fluid balance
    • lipid absorption
    • defence
  3. glandular organ in the mediastinum above the heart
  4. large organ in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen that processes old red blood cells
  5. mass of lymphoid tissue located along the course of a lymphatic vessel
    lymph node
  6. what is the typical lymphatic pathway
    • lymphatic capillaries
    • afferent lymphatic vessel
    • lymph node
    • efferent lymphatic vessel
    • lymphatic trunk
    • collecting duct
    • subclavian vein
  7. the fluid inside lymphatic vessels
  8. these drain lymph from the lymphatic vessels
    lymphatic trunks
  9. what are the two collecting ducts
    thoracic and right lymphatic duct
  10. this is the larger and longer of the two collecting ducts this duct drains lymph from the intestinal, lumbar, and intercostal trunks
    thoracic duct
  11. lymph from the right side of the head and right thorax enter this duct
    right lymphatic duct
  12. what is lymph made of
    • water, small molecules from plasma
    • basically is tissue fluid from the blood
  13. describe the role of plasma protiens in regard to lymph formation
    the plasma proteins help draw the fluid back into the capillaries
  14. this osmotic effect of proteins that helps draw fluid back into the blood is called...
    plasma colloid osmotic pressure
  15. this is an excess of tissue fluid
  16. list the two forces moving lymph to the cardio system
    • skeletal muscle pump
    • respiratory pump
  17. one way valves in the lymphatic vessels cause this
    fluid to only move one way along with contracting smooth muscle
  18. what are the two primary functions of the lymph nodes
    • filtering particles from lymph before returning it into the bloodstream
    • monitoring body fluids
  19. this is part of the structure of a lymph node where blood vessels and nerves join a lymph node
  20. this part of a lymph node is enclosed by connective tissues and fibers
  21. what are the functional unit of the lymph node
    lymph nodules (follicles)
  22. what is found in the cortex of a lymph nodule
    • B cells
    • macrophages
  23. in the stucture of a lymph node there is chambers and channels that lymph can freely flow called
    lymph sinuses
  24. this is the vessels that lymph enters a lymph node through
    Afferent lymphatic vessels
  25. this is the vessels that lymph leaves a lymph node
    efferent lymphatic vessel
  26. list the 7 major lymph nodes
    • cervical region
    • axillary region
    • inguinal region
    • pelvic cavity
    • abdominal cavity
    • thoracic cavity
    • supratrochlear region
  27. these nodes are associated with lymphatic vesssels that drain the skin of the scalp and face as well as the tissues of the nasal cavity and pharynx ( lower mandible)
    cervical region
  28. this recieves lymph from vessels that drain the upper limbs, the wall of the thorax, the mammary glands, and upper wall of the abdomen
    axillary region
  29. this lymph region is located superficially on the medial side of the elbow
    supratrochlear region
  30. nodes that receives lymph from the lower limbs, external genitalia, and lower abdominal wall is
    pelvic cavity
  31. this node forms chains along the mesenteric arteries and the abdominal aorta and receives lymph from the abdominal viscera
    abdominal cavity
  32. this node region receives lymph from the thoracic viscera and from the internal wall of the thorax.
    thoracic cavity
  33. List the nonspecific (non adaptive) mechanisms of defense against infection
    • species resistance
    • mechanical barriers
    • chemical barriers
    • natural killer cells
    • inflamation
    • phagocytosis
    • fever
  34. this is a very general protection against many types of pathogens and functions the same way regardless of pathogen or number of exposure
    innate defence
  35. what is species resistance
    a species may be resistant to diseases that effect other species because its cells do not have receptors for the pathogen or its tissues do not provide the temp or chemical environment that a particular pathogen requires
  36. tears, saliva and urine wash away microorganisms before they become attached what defence is this
    first line of defence
  37. b-cells and phagocytosis provide what line of defence
    second line of defence
  38. what are mechanical barriers
    the skin and mucous membranes lining passageways of the respiratory,digestive,urinary, and reproductive systems
  39. enzymes in body fluids such as gastric juice  is considered what type of barrier
    chemical barrier
  40. this is a group of proteins, in plasma and other body fluids, that interact in an expanding series of reactions or cascade
    complement (system)
  41. what are natural killer cells (NK)
    a small population of lymphocytes that are distinctly different from the lymphocytes that provide adaptive defense mechanisms
  42. what do NK cells secret and to do what
    they secrete cytolytic substances called perforins to lyse open various viruses and cancer cells
  43. what are perforins
    cell cutting (cytolytic) substances that lyse the cells
  44. what three cells fall under the list of mononuclear phagocytic system
    • monocytes
    • macrophages
    • neutrophils
  45. what does fever do as a innate defense
    elavated body temp indirectly inhibits microbial growth and increases phagocytic activity
  46. list 4 types of cytokines
    • Colony stimulating factors
    • interferon
    • interleukins
    • tumor necrosis factor
  47. this is proteins that stimulates differentiation and maturation of WBCs
    colony stimulating factor
  48. this is a type of polypeptide secreted by T lymphocytes that enhances cellular response to antigens
  49. what is a interferon
    they attach to the antigens active site and will prevent microbial reproduction
  50. this defense mechanism is very specified and is carried out by specialized lymphocytes
    adaptive defense
  51. what are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation
    • redness
    • swelling
    • heat
    • pain
  52. describe how colar-temperature comes about in inflammation
    blood enters from deeper parts of the body and warms the surface blood
  53. how does rubor-redness come about in inflammation
    this is a result of vessel dialation and increased blood flow to area (hyperemia
  54. what do tumor necrosis factors effect
    stops tumor growth, releases growth factors, causes fever that accompanies bacterial infection, stimulates lymphocyte differentiation
  55. these control lymphocyte differentiation and proliferation
  56. swelling in tissues is called
  57. tissue fluids that collect in inflamed tissues is called
  58. these removes foreign particles from the lymph as it moves from the interstitial spaces to the bloodstream
  59. this is a granulocyte that phagocytizes small particles with a nucleus of 2-5 lobes
  60. this is a granulocyte that kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions with a bilobed nucleus
  61. this is a granulocyte that releases heparin and histamine with a lobed nulceus
  62. what are the three granulocytes
    • neutrophil
    • eosinophil
    • basophil
  63. what are the two agranulocytes
    • monocyte
    • lymphocyte
  64. this agranulocyte phagocytizes large particles and is 2-3times larger than a RBcell
  65. this agranulocyte provides immunity and is only slightly larger than a RBcell
  66. what is chemotaxis
    chemicals released from injured cells attract phagocytic cells
  67. list the 4 ways immunity can be classified
    • naturally acquired passive immunity
    • artificially acquired passive immunity
    • artificially acquired active immunity
    • naturally acquired active immunity
  68. exposure to live pathogens which stimulates a immune response with symptoms of disease is what type of immunity
    naturally acquired active immunity
  69. exposure to a vaccine containing weakened or dead pathogens or their components which stimulates a immune response without the symptoms of a disease
    artificially acquired active immunity
  70. injection of gamma globulin containing anitbodies or antitoxins which have short term immunity without stimulating an immune response
    aritficially acquired passive immunity
  71. antibodies passed to fetus from pregnant woman with active immunity or to newborn through breast milk from a woman with active immunity which has short term immunity for newborn without stimulating a immune response
    naturally acquired passive immunity
  72. a preperation that includes an antigen that can stimulate a primary immune response against a particular pathogen but does not produce symptoms is a
  73. what is a primary immune response
    when B cells and T cells become activated after first encountering the antigens for which they are specialized to react
  74. memory B cells and memory T cells produce a
    secondary immune response
  75. after primary immune response some of the B cells produces during proliferation remain dormant to serve as
    memory cells
  76. what do plasma cells produce
    large globular proteins called antibodies
  77. how are plasma cells created
    some members of the activated B cells clone differentiate further into plasma cells
  78. what do antibodies do
    antibodies bind to antigen receptor molecules on the original B cells surface
  79. the antibody mediated immune response is called the
    humoral immune response
  80. T cell activation requires that processed framgments of the antigen must be attached to the surface of another type of cell such as a macrophage or B cell these are called
    antigen presenting cells
  81. this helps T cells recognize that a newly displayed antigen is foreign where the antigen is displayed on a group of proteins called
    major histocompatibility complex
  82. when T cells interact directly with the antigen presenting cell is is called
    cellular immune response
  83. when is a helper T cell activated
    when its antigen receptor combines with a displayed foreign antigen the helper T cell stimulates a B cell to produce antibodies
  84. this type of T cell recognizes and combines with nonself anitgens that cancerous cells or virtuallly infected cells display on their surfaces near certain MHC proteins
    cytotoxic T cell
  85. certain cytotoxic T cells make
    memory T cells
  86. what are the 6 types of immunoglobulin
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgM
    • IgD
    • IgE
  87. What is the major functions of immunoglobulin IgG and where does it occur
    • Defends agst bacteria, viruses, toxins
    • activates compliment
    • found in Plasma and tissue fluid
  88. What is the major functions of immunoglobulin IgA and where does it occur
    • defends agst bacteria and viruses
    • found in exocrine gland secretions
  89. What is the major funtions of immunoglobulin IgM and where does it occur
    • reacts with antigens on some RBcells membranes following mismatched blood transfusions
    • activates compliment
    • found in plasma
  90. what is the major functions of immunoglobulin IgD and where does it occur
    • B cell activation
    • found on surface of most B lymphocytes
  91. What is the major functions of immunoglobulin IgE and where does it occur
    • promotes inflammation and allergic reactions
    • found in exocrine gland secretions
  92. what are the three major types of immunoglobulins out of the 5
    • G
    • A
    • M
  93. what is the function of an antibody
    to combine with the antigen on the pathogen and react against it
  94. what are variable regions
    the region on the light and heavy chains where they are specialized to fit the shape of a specific antigen molecule
  95. the parts that bind the antigen are called...
  96. the specialized ends of the antibody molecule are called
    antigen binding sites
  97. the remaining parts of the chains are called ______ because their amino acid sequences are similar and they allow the rest of the antibody  to bond to cellular structures or combine with chemicals
    constant regions
  98. what is it called when antibodies cause clumping
  99. what is it called when antibodies cause insoluble substances
  100. what is called when antibodies alter the molecular structure of viruses making them harmless
  101. what is it called when antibodies alters antigen cell membranes so cells are more suseptible to phagocytosis
  102. what attracts macrophages and neurtophils into the region
  103. what is lysis
    breaking open of a cell allowing rapid movement of water and ions into the foreign cell causing osmotic rupture
  104. what does inflammation do
    prevents spread of antigens
  105. what are the 4 types of allergic reaction
    • I. Anaphylactic shock
    • II. Antibody-Dependent Cytotoxic Reactions
    • III. Immune Complex Reactions
    • IV. Delayed-Reaction Allergy
  106. Any antigen that triggers an allergic response is
  107. what is an allergic reaction
    an immune response to a nonharmful substance and can damage tissues
  108. The loss of the ability to tolerate self antigens is
  109. A _______ occurs within minutes after B cells first contact an allergen and become sensitized
    immediate reaction
  110. this type of allergic reaction can be due to repeated exposure to chemicals or some cosmetics and usually takes about 48 hours to occur
    delayed reaction allergy
  111. a transfusion reaction to mismatched blood will cause this type of allergic reaction
    immune complex reaction
  112. hypersensitivitys that take one to three hours to develop include which to allergic reactions
    • antibody dependent cytotoxic reactions
    • immune complex reactions
  113. food alleries cause this
    anaphylactic shock
  114. If a recipients cells may recognize the donors tissues as foreign and attempt to destroy the transplanted tissue in a
    tissue rejection reaction
  115. what are the 4 major types of grafts
    • autografts
    • allografts
    • isografts
    • xenografts
  116. the donor is an identical twin and it is bone marrow transplant from healthy twin to one with leukemia is an example of
  117. Skin graft from one part of a body to another part of the body replace burn skin is an example of
  118. kidney transplant from a relative or closely matched donor is an
  119. transplant from a different species such as heart valves from a pig
  120. the immune system can fail to distinguish self from nonself, producing anitbodies called?
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lymphatic and immunity
2014-12-08 23:37:28

chapter 16 sg
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