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to believe in many gods
the belief in which the world was full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals, objects, or dreams.
to study the origins and development of people and their societies.
Anthropologists specialize in certain areas:
- some study the bones of our ancestors to understand how human physical traits have changed over time.
- other anthropologists focus on the characteristics of human cultures from both the past and the present.
- culture refers to the way of life of a society, which includes its beliefs, values, and practices
Difference between Paleolithic and Neolithic Time Period and estimated.
- Paleolithic Period ↔ Old Stone Age
- Neolithic Period ↔ New Stone Age
Old Stone Age -- Paleolithic Period
* creation of stone, bone, and wood tools
* use of fire
* spoken language
* ability to travel across water in boats
* belief in a spiritual world
* creation of cave paintings
* burial of the dead
New Stone Age -- Neolithic Period
* farming and domestication of plants and animals
* settling of permanent villages
* dominance of family, economic, and political life by men
* gaining of prestige by warriors
* appearance of differences in wealth
* creation of first calendars
* more elaborate tools and new technologies
Oldest ancient ruins (2 Cities)
- Jericho = established in the modern-day West Bank between 10,000 and 9000 BC. The village was tiny size of a soccer field and a few 100 people lived there. Village was surrounded by a huge wall, which suggests that it had a government or leader who was able to organized a large construction project.
- Catalhuyuk = established in modern-day Turkey around 7000BC. Possible population 6500 people. The village covered about 3 times more land than Jericho and included hundreds of rectangular mud-brick houses, all connected and all about the same size.
Pictograph (also called pictograms)
simple drawings that look like the objects they represent.
Why are Mary and Louis Leakey important?
- In the 1930s, the Leakey's who are anthropologists started searching for clues to the human past in a deep canyon in Tanzania called Olduvai Gorge.
- A skull they found in the Olduvai Gorge belonged to an early hominid. Hominids, a group that includes humans and their closest relatives, all walk upright on two feet.
Who is Donald Johanson?
Evidence of early hominids was found in 1974 by Johanson. He named his historic find "Lucy" after a Beatles' song. Studying Lucy's skeleton, Johanson could see that she was an upright walker who was about 4 feet tall.
the study of past people and cultures through their material remains. These remains include building and artifacts such as tools, weapons, pottery, clothing and jewelry.
Differences between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals
- Homo sapiens is the group to which modern humans belong. They first lived in Africa and then migrated into other areas.
- Neanderthals and Early modern man are groups that came from the homo sapiens. They lived mostly in Europe and western Asia.
When did man begin crossing water?
- 18000 BC
- Some Old Stone Age people learned to travel across water to help them spread into new places.
- People boated from Southeast Asia to Australia at least 40,000 years ago most likely using rafts and cameos.
First hominid to use fire
Homo erectus because they showed a greater range of capabilities. They also pioneered a new form of stone tool, called a hand ax, that could be used as the for digging, shattering stone or bone, and boring holes into hard surfaces.
- given name means "upright man" because their skeleton show that they were fully upright walkers.
- they had large brains and bones and smaller teeth than other hominids.
Purpose of cave paintings
How did Agriculture contribute to the growth of civilization?
Farmers were able to produce surpluses of food. This allowed them to feed growing populations and stop store food for the future.
Social Hierarchy of early civilization
Who made community decisions in the New Stone Age?
Priest and War Leaders
the spread of ideas, customs and technologies from one people to another. this occurred through migration, trade, and warfare.
How were the first civilization in the America's unique?
They weren't near river valleys.
Early purpose of spoken language
- to communicate
- early modern humans developed spoken language, which allowed them to cooperate during the hunt and perhaps discuss plans for the future
What is a steppe?
on some less fertile lands or spars, dry grasslands called steppes, nomadic herders tended cattle, sheep goats,or other animals.
main feature of civilizations
a person whose trained to read, write and keep records
How do geologists help archaeologists?
help with determining the age of rocks located near archaeological digs.
- objects made by humans
- clothing, coins, artwork, and tombstones are all types of artifacts
Who is "Lucy"?
Evidence of early hominids was found in 1974 by Donald Johanson. He named his historic find "Lucy" after a Beatles' song. Studying Lucy's skeleton, Johanson could see that she was an upright walker who was about 4 feet tall.
Importance of Olduvai Gorge
A skull found by Mary and Louis Leakey in the Olduvai Gorge belonged to an early hominid. Hominids, a group that includes humans and their closest relatives, all walk upright on two feet.
What caused the start of the New Stone Age (Neolithic Period)?
the finding of the farming
Difference between Nomadic cultures and civilizations
civilizations were complex
Spiritual beliefs during the Old Stone Age
Our ancestors believed the world was full of spirits and forces that might reside in animals such as deer, horses, and buffaloes. Such beliefs are known as animism.
River Valley Civilizations
- A civilization is a complex, highly organized social order.
- Sumer, between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East
- Egypt, along the Nile River
- Indus civilization, along the Indus River in India
- Shang civilization, along the Huang River or Yellow River in China
Distinctions between types of maps
they each have different things to show
5 themes of geography
- human interaction