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What is cuneiform?
- from the Latin word cuneus for "wedge", because scribes wrote by making wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets.
- a Babylonian emperor who took over Israel
- he oversaw the rebuilding of the canals, temples, walls, and palaces of Babylon
- during his reign, Babylon became one of the largest and most highly regarded in the history of ancient Mesopotamia.
- he surrounded Babylon with a defensive moat and a brick wall. Ishtar Gate is a famous gateway built by Nebuchadnezzar
- he built the famous Hanging Gardens - know as one of the "seven wonders of the world"
- a large, stepped platform thought to have been topped by a temple dedicated to the city's chief god or goddess.
- the Sumerians were polytheistic, worshipping many gods.
- these gods were thought to control every aspect of life, especially the forces of nature.
- Sumerians believed that goes and goddesses behaved like ordinary people - they ate, drank, married, and raised families
Persian developments under the rule of Darius
- Darius set up a government that became a model for later rulers.
- Darius adapted laws from the peoples he conquered and like Hammurabi, drew up a single code of laws for the empire.
- Darius set up common set of weights and measures.
Importance of Hammurabi's Code
- His publication of a set of laws
- He codified civil law. This branch of law deals with private rights and matters, such as business contracts, property inheritance, taxes, marriage and divorce.
- He addressed criminal law. This branch of law deals with offenses against others, such as robbery, assault, or murder.
What made the Israelites unique?
they were monotheistic, believing that there was only one god
Importance of Iron
- The Hittites brought with them a major advancement - the knowledge of how to extract iron from ore.
- The tools and weapons they made with iron were harder and had sharper edges than those made out of bronze or copper.
Important and major events of Egypt's Old, Middle, and New Kingdom
- Old Kingdom - Pharaohs played key roles in government and religion. They took pride in preserving justice and order. Bureaucracy is a system of government that includes different job functions and levels of authority. Pharaohs depended on vizier, or chief minister, to supervise the business of government. During the Old Kingdom, Egyptians built pyramids. A well known one today is the Great Pyramid.
- Middle Kingdom was a turbulent period. The Nile didn't rise. Corruption and rebellions were common. Strong rulers did organize a large drainage project creating farmable land. Armies occupied Nubia. Traders had greater contacts with the Middle East and Mediterranean island of Crete. The Hyskos occupied the Nile delta region. Egyptians mastered new military technology.
- New Kingdom had their first female ruler Hatshepsut. She encourage trade. Her stepson Thutmose III, a great military general stretched Egypt's borders took over when he reached adulthood. Much later, Ramses II the best known of the Egyptian rulers because he boasted of his conquests on numerous temple and monuments. Ramses II battles against the Hittites of Asia Minor, after years of fighting, at the first peace treaty was signed. It declared that Egypt and the Hittites "shall be at peace and in brotherhood forever." After 1100BC Egyptian power slowly declined. Assyrians and the Persians conquered the Nile region.
- these foreign invaders occupied the Nile delta region
- they awed the Egyptians with their horse-drawn war chariots
Important People/myths in Egyptian Religion
Importance of the Torah
- the most sacred text.
- it includes the first five books of the Hebrew Bible - that is, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy
in the Egyptian bureaucracy, a pharaoh depended on a vizier, or chief minister, to supervise the business of government.
During the Old Kingdom, Egyptian kings,were later called pharaohs. They played key roles in government and religion.
A skilled organizer, Darius set up a government that became a model of later rulers. He divided the empire into provinces, each called a satrapy and headed by a governor called a satrap.
- a binding promise and agreement with Abraham
- Two declarations: *God declared that He would have a special relationship with Abraham and his descendants. *God declared that Canaan would one day belong tot he Israelites.
- Ancient Egyptian art is the painting, sculpture, architecture and other arts produced by the civilization of Ancient Egypt in the lower Nile Valley from about 3000 BC to 100 AD.
Egyptian Social Structure
Ten Commandments - Origin
- set of laws that Jews believe God gave to them through Moses.
- First four commandments stress religious duties toward God, such as keeping the Sabbath, a holy day for rest and worship.
- The rest address conduct toward others.
- Helped to unite the empire.
- He rejected the old Persian gods and taught that a single wise god, Ahura Mazda, ruled the world.
a system in which symbols or pictures called hieroglyphs represent objects, concepts, or sounds
Importance of Rosetta Stone
- a stone monument that includes the same passage carved in hieroglyphics, demotic script, and Greek and that was used to decipher the meanings of many hieroglyphs.
Status of women in Egypt, both good and bad aspects
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Egyptian Afterlife: Judgement myth
- The Egyptians believed that each soul had to pass a test to win eternal life. First, the dead should would be ferried across lake of fire to the hall of Osiris. Then, the dead person's heart would be weighed against the feather of truth.
- Those Osiris judged to be sinners would be fed to the crocodile-shaped Eater of the Dead.
the preservation of dead bodies by embalming them and wrapping them in cloth.
a holy day for rest and worship
the spreading of the Jews beyond their historic homeland
- a triangular area of marshland formed by deposits of silt at the mouth of some rivers.