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social groups into which people are born and which can rarely be changed.
groups of families who claim a common ancestor
local military leader
a system of government in which local lords governed their own lands but owed military service and other forms of support to the ruler
all the actions of a person's life that affect his or her fate in the next life
seasonal wind that regularly blows from a certain direction for part of that year
developed about 2500 BC, the doctor inserts needles into the skin at specific points to relieve pain or treat various illnesses
payment a brides family makes to the bridegroom and his family
fine windblown yellow soil
- Aryan tribes were led by chiefs who were called rajahs.
- They are the most skilled war leader, had been elected to his position by any assembly of warriors
- Chinese scholars turned writing into an elegant art form.
- An art of producing beautiful handwriting
Four Noble Truths
- Four Noble Truths that lie at the heart of Buddhism:
- 1. All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow
- 2. The cause of suffering is non virtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire.
- 3. The only cure for suffering is to overcome non virtue
- 4. The way to overcome non virtue is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Achievements of Chandragupta Maurya
- conquered northern India
- he maintained order through a well-organized bureaucracy.
- true to the Buddhist principle of respect for all life, Chandragupta's grandson, Asoka stopped eating most meats and limited Hindu animal sacrifices.
Understand Dharma and Ahimsa
Dharma in Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties.
Ahimsa - Hindu belief in nonviolence and reverence for all life.
Why was the Great Wall built?
- to defend their lands against raiders
- it became an important symbol to the Chinese people diving and protecting their civilized world from the nomadic bands north of the wall.
- to live in harmony with nature
- founded by Laozi, or "Old Master"
Achievements of the Han Golden Age
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How did Aryans measure wealth?
Cattle became the principle measure of wealth.
Important aspects of Indus civilization
- * well-planned cities reveal organized government
- * making a living by farming and trading
- * religious develop
Moksha, Brahman, Nirvana
- Moksha - the ultimate goal of existence or union with brahman
- Brahman - the creator
- Nirvana - union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth
Major differences between Hinduism and Buddhism
Importance of Asoka
During his rule of Maurya India, Asoka converted to Buddhism, rejected violence and resolved to rule by more example.
Mandate of Heaven
- The "Mandate of Heaven" is an ancient Chinese philosophical concept, which originated during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE).
- The Mandate determines whether an emperor of China is sufficiently virtuous to rule; if he does not fulfill his obligations as emperor, then he loses the Mandate and thus the right to be emperor.
- The Confucian emphasis on filial piety bolstered traditional customs such as reverence for ancestors.
- It introduced a long-lasting Chinese belief that the universe reflected a delicate balance between two forces, yin and yang.
- Yin was linked to Earth, darkness, and female forces, while yang stood for heaven light, and male forces.
Why was Wudi important?
- the most famous Han emperor
- he strengthened the government and economy
- he reorganized finances and imposed a government monopoly on iron and salt. A monopoly is the complete control of a product or business by one person or group.
- he followed a policy of expansionism, or expanding a country's territory, by increasing the amount of land under Chinese rule.