Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2014-12-10 21:24:21
Anatomy Physiology

Quiz of 12/5/14
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  1. organs of the endocrine system
    • endocrine glands
    • these secrete hormones into the blood
  2. Hormones
    • substances that regulate the rates of reactions in the body
    • chemical messages
  3. Endocrine system major areas of function
    • maintaining homeostasis (ex: calcium balance regulated by hormones)
    • growth (growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone)
    • reproduction
  4. How do hormones work
    • they circulate the blood almost all over the body
    • some hormones affect all cells of the body and some only for specific cells
  5. target cells
    • the cells that respond to hormones (all body cells or specific cells)
    • they have chemical receptors (proteins) on the membrane or inside the cell that recognize the chemistry of the hormone and bind to it
    • nature of the target cell determines the response to the hormone
  6. how can other regulators besides traditional hormones affect body functions
    • these are things not released in the blood
    • paracrine (local) regulators: affect nearby cells
    • autocrine regulators: made in a cell and affect that same cell
    • prostiglandins: hormone-like substances, not regular hormones, sort of tissue hormones that can be involved in hormone responses but may affect many types of functions in the body
  7. 4 Chemical natures of hormones (major categories of them)
    • 1.) Amino Acid Derivatives
    • 2.) Polypeptides, Proteins, and Glycoproteins
    • 3.) Steroids
    • 4.) Elcosanoids
  8. amino acid derivatives
    • made from 1 amino acid (not a protein)
    • epinepherine, norepinepherine, melatonin and thyroid hormone
  9. Polypeptides, Proteins, and Glycoproteins
    • largest group
    • many hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, prolactin
    • all hormones of the pituitary gland + hypothalamus
  10. Steroids
    • fat soluble hormones made from cholesterol
    • hydrocortisone, estrogen, testosterone, aldosterone
  11. Elcosanoids
    • made from individual fatty acids
    • prostaglandins are the major one even though their not technically hormones
  12. Regulation of hormone secretion (what stimulates a gland to make and release a hormone)
    • 1. another hormone in the blood: ex- thyroid hormone is triggered in the thyroid gland by TSH
    • 2. Something in the blood, but not a hormone: ex- blood pressure, level of a nutrient, etc; also called a hormonal stimulus
    • 3. Nervous stimulation
  13. Hormone interactions
    • 1. hormone stimulates the synthesis/secretion of another hormone- excitatory
    • 2. one hormone inhibits the synthesis/secretion of another hormone (ex- prolactin inhibitory hormone in maline milk in non pregnant women)
    • 3. a hromone is permissive (similar) for another hormones action, it allows the other hormone to have its full effect.
  14. synergism
    • hormones enhance each others effect
    • in growth, many different hormones enhance each other
  15. Antagonistic hormones
    • hormones that have opposite affects
    • ex: insulin and glucagon have opposite affects on blood sugar level- one lowers and one raises
  16. Pituitary gland
    • also called hypophysis
    • makes the most hormones
    • located in cranial cavity- attached by a stalk (infandibulum) to the hypothalamus which influences the glands function
  17. 2 major parts of pituitary gland
    • anterior lobe
    • posterior lobe
    • these have different hormones and are regulated differently by the hypothalmus
  18. Hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
    • growth hormone
    • prolactin
    • trophic hormones
  19. growth hormone
    • stimulates growth, especially of bone and muscle (adults have it too) 
    • stimulates protein synthesis in the bone+ muscle
    • if you are a child it will make you grow
    • stimulates fat breakdown and increases blood glucose
    • primarily triggered when a person is not eating+keeps up glucose level- hyperglycemic
  20. disorders of growth hormone
    • dwarfism:deficiency of a child
    • gigantism: too much as a child (usually from a tumor)
    • acromegaly: excess growth hormonee when a person is an adult- causes a widening of certain bones in the face and hands
  21. prolactin
    • stimulates milk synthesis in mamary glands of the breasts after birth
    • stimulates breast development during pregnancy along with other hormones
  22. What are trophic hormones and specific ones?
    • hormones that stimulate another endocrine gland- stimulates growth of the gland and synthesis/secretion of its hormones; named for the target gland or tissue
    • thyroid stimulating hormone
    • adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    • gonadotrophic hormones (subclass)
  23. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    stimulates growth of thyroid gland + production and secretion of thyroid hormone only (although thyroid makes multiple other hormones)
  24. adrenocorticotrophic hormone
    • stimulates the growth of adrenal cortex (outer part of adrenal gland)
    • only stimulates synthesis/secretion of hydrocortisone (but cortex makes other hormones too)
  25. gonadotrophic hormones
    • subclass of trophic hormones
    • stimulate the gonads (ovaries and testies)
  26. 2 types of gonadotrophic hormones
    • follicle stimulating hormone
    • leutinizing hormone
  27. follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • in a female: stimulates the follicles of the ovaries to make hormones, mostly estrogen and some progesterone; stimulates the release of the egg at ovulation
    • in the male: stimulates spermatogenesis (sperm production) in the seminiferous tubules of the testes
  28. leutinizing hormone
    • in female: like FSH, this stimulates ovulation, also stimulates synthesis of progesterone and some estrogen from corpus luteum in the ovary
    • in male: stimulates testosterone production from the interstitial cells of the testes
  29. control of the anterior pituitary hormones by the hypothalmus
    • hypothalamus makes neurohormones (hormones made by neurons) that can stimulate or inhibit the pituitary
    • specific for the pituitary hormones they affect
    • releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones
  30. releasing hormones
    stimulate synthesis/secretion of specific anterior pituitary hormones; theres a releasing hormone for TSH one for ACTH, for FSH + LH for growth hormone and for prolactin
  31. inhibiting hormones
    inhibit synthesis and secretion of specific anterior pituitary hormones, theres one for growth hormone and prolactin
  32. How does the hypothalamus release its hormones to signal the anterior pituitary gland?
    • releasing/inhibiting hormones are released into a special blood supply where blood vessels are going directly from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary to stimulate it to make its hormones
    • this direct blood supply (not general circulation) is called a portal system, brings high concentration of hormones (needed to work) directly to the target
    • neurons making releasing and inhibiting hormones travel through the portal system to the anterior lobe
  33. how does the hypothalamus release its hormones to signal the posterior pituitary gland?
    the posterior pituitary gland's hormones are made in the hypothalamus and travel from it inside neurons from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary
  34. Posterior Pituitary lobe
    often called neurolobe because of direct neuro connection from hypothalamus
  35. neurosecretory cells
    neurons in the hypothalamus that make hormones
  36. hormones of the posterior pituitary gland
    • oxytocin
    • antidiuretic hormone
  37. oxytocin
    • in childbirth, this causes very strong contraction of the uterus
    • controlled by the nervous and endocrine mechanisms
    • estrogen stimulates mild contractions in the beginning of labor, once this starts, nervous impulses go to the hypothalamus to stimulate oxytocin, which is made goes to pituitary, then blood and stimulates contraction
    • in lactation- causes milk release front he breasts (milk ejection) triggered by a neuron endocrine reflex- baby nursing on breast sends impulses to hypothalamus, oxytocin is made and eventually brought to the blood where it targets mammary cells where it causes release of milk into ducts and out nipple
  38. what will a neuroendocrine reflex stimulate?
    oxytocin and prolactin (impulse from baby--> hypothalamus--->makes releasing hormone telling a. pituitary to make and release prolactin
  39. antidiuretic hormone
    • stimulates water retention in the body, specifically in the blood
    • acts on the kidney to prevent water excretion in the urine
    • important for water balance in the body
    • regulated by the hypothalamus cells in the hypothalamus, measure the amount of water in the body fluid, if too low it makes ADH which goes to the posterior lobe and then to the blood where it then circulates the kidney where it acts
    • also important in blood pressure homeostasis- reguates the amount of h2o in the blood-more blood volume, bigger bp
    • functions also in hemorrhaging (extensive blood loss) acts as a vasoconstrictor- contract blood vessels to prevent blood loss, this also regulates bp
  40. thyroid gland
    • located in the neck below the larynx
    • has two lobes connected by the isthmus
  41. thyroid hormone
    • a mixture of 2 hormones thyroxin (tetratodial-T4) and triodial thyronine
    • made from tyrosine-T3 and iodine
    • the body makes more T4 than T3 but T3 is more potent
    • made in the follicle cells of the thyroid
    • stored as part of a protein in the middle of the follicle- called the colloid
  42. thyroid hormone functions
    • stimulates metabolic rate of all cells
    • speeds metabolism
    • affects carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism
    • stimulates growth of a child
  43. calcitonin
    • peptide made in the parafollicular cells
    • functions in calcium homeostasis- lowers blood calcium levels if it gets too high by inhibiting bone breakdown
  44. Parathyroid gland
    • 4 small organs on backside of thyroid gland (2 on each lateral lobe)
    • makes parathyroid hormone
  45. parathyroid hormone
    • much more important than calcitonin- a peptide 
    • functions in ca2+ homeostasis- raises the blood Ca level when it gets too low, stimulates bone breakdown to release calcium into the blood
    • prevents calcium excretion in urine by retaining it in the blood in the kidneys
  46. what other hormones affect calcium in the body
    • estrogen and testosterone stimulate ca deposit in bone, bitamin d stimulates calcium absorption from food
    • ca is important in nervous functioning (releasing neurotransmitters), muscle contraction, blood clotting, bone strength, and enzyme activity
  47. Adrenal Glands
    located over the kidney on each side
  48. adrenal cortex
    hormones are all steroids, 3 layers with different hormones
  49. layers of the adrenal cortex
    • outermost: zona glomerulosa- makes mineralocorticoids- affect minerals- aldosterone
    • middle: zone faciculata- makes glucocorticoids- affects glucose- main one is hydrocortisone
    • innermost: zona reticularis- makes a small amount of sex hormones
    • in women and men- testosterone is most in amount, but also progesterone and estrogen
  50. Hydrocoritsone (adrenal cortex)
    • zona glomerulosa
    • affects all cells of the body
    • raises the blood glucose level- hyperglycemic (like growth hormone)- does this by gluconeogenisis- makes glucose from amino acids in liver
    • stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose in the liver
    • affects fat metabolism for energy
    • helps the body cope with  stress- returns to homeostasis after stress
    • anti inflammatory- calms down the bodies defenses- prevents body from going overboard
  51. Aldosterone
    • made by adrenal glands- zone fasciculata 
    • vital for mineral balance, stimulates sodium retention in the blood in the kidneys, prevents sodium excretion in the urine
    • important in fluid and blood pressure balance
    • when Na+ put into blood, Cl- is attracted to blood and builds up NaCl- by osmosis
    • stimulated when theres a drop in bp- you'll increase nacl and h2o in blood to restore bp
    • vasocontrictor- prevents blood loss in hemmoraging
  52. Sex Steroids
    • made in adrenal gland- zona reticularis
    • they have possible roles in development of an embryo
  53. Adrenal Medulla
    body makes mostly epinephrine and norepinepherine- important in stress, triggered by sympathetic NS to get the maximum out of body
  54. Epinepherine
    • fight or flight hormone, causing max effect
    • increases cardiac output
    • vasodialator- widens blood vessels to increase blood flow in body
    • dialates respiratory pathway for more air
    • dialates pupils
    • a hyperglycemic hormone- raises blood glucose by breaking down glycogen in liver
    • keeps up blood glucose in stress
  55. Pancreas
    • an endo and exocrine organ
    • 1% is islets of langerhans - make hormones
    • alpha cells make glucagon
    • beta cells make insulin
    • these are important in regulating blood glucose level and they have opposite functions
  56. Insulin
    • lowers blood glucose level- hypoglycemic by stimulating cells to take up + use glucose
    • stimulates glucose breakdown for energy
    • stimulates synthesis of glycogen from glucose
    • stimulates protein synthesis- stimulates cells to take up amino acids and use them to make protein
    • promotes fat storage as energy reserve
  57. Glucagon
    • hyperglycemic- raises blood glucose by breaking down glycogen to glucose in liver
    • breaks down fat for energy when needed
  58. Diabetes Mellitus
    either a lack of insulin or a decreased sensitivity to it
  59. Diabetes Insipidus
    • lack of antidiuretic hormone
    • very rare
  60. Type 1 Diabetes Melliatus
    • lack of insulin
    • beta cells that make it are attacked- an autoimmune disease
    • insulin dependent- must be treated with insulin
    • most serious type
    • usually childhood onset- can appear at a growth spurt
  61. Effects/complications of untreated diabetes type one (sometimes type 2 but mostly type 1)
    glucose cannot get into cells and can't be used for energy, this ends up upsetting glucose balance, the acid base balance, water balance, blood pressure balance
  62. type 2 diabetes melliatus
    • decreased sensitivity to insulin made
    • treated with medication to increase sensitivity along with a change in diet
    • usually adult onset, usually after a preceding period of obesity
  63. Symptoms of diabetes
    • polyurea
    • polydipsea 
    • hyperglycemia 
    • glucosuria
  64. polyuria
    excessive urination
  65. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  66. glucosuria
    large amounts of sugar in the urine
  67. general diabetes pathway (both types but type 2 less severe effects)
    • decreased glucose transport into cells
    • leads to decrease use of glucose for energy
    • leads to hyperglycemia
    • which leads to glucosura because sugar can't get in cells so its excreted
    • leads to polyuria (bc so much sugar to excrete)
    • which leads to polydipsia because we try to replace the water loss
    • leads to loss of fluid and electrolytes from the boyd
    • which can lead to decreased blood volume in the bv's causing decreased blood pressure and even possible shock
  68. type 1 diabetes pathway
    • decreased transport of glucose into cells
    • leads to decreased use of glucose for energy 
    • which causes you to mobilize fats (and sometimes proteins)
    • then you breakdown fats, producing ketones (acidic) faster than they can be used for energy
    • so you end up causing ketoacidosis which upsets the acid/base balance in the body
  69. ketoacidosis
    blood is too acidic because of high ketones in the blood
  70. Thymus
    • located in the thoracic cavity
    • above the heart
    • produces thymic hormones
    • before birth and in early life: stimulates the production of lymphocytes from the thymus (thymus dependent lymphocytes- T-lymphocytes)
  71. Thymic Hormones
    • thymosins
    • thymopoietens
    • thymulin
    • critical for defense in the body- immunity against diseases
    • works by a persons maturity- the gland shrinks over time
    • works in your childhood to do its job
    • hormones enable t cells to mature and to be capable of destroying microorganisms and other foreign particles
  72. Pineal Gland
    • attached to the 3rd ventricle of the brain
    • influenced by the sympathetic Nervous System
    • makes melatonin
  73. melatonin
    • made from neurotransmitter seratonin
    • stimulates sleep, secreted more at night
    • inhibited by light
    • important in rhythmicity- day/night; biological clock along with hypothalamus
  74. Other hormones in the body
    • GI hormones
    • atrial natriuretic hormone
    • erythropoietin
    • renin
    • angiotensin
    • leptin
    • reproductive hormones
  75. GI hormones
    • made in the stomach and small intestine
    • regulate digestion
    • several of them
  76. Atrial Natriuretic Hormon
    • made in the heart
    • opposite affect of aldosterone-excretes Na+ (excess) then fluid follows 
    • affects blood glucose
  77. Erythropoietin
    • made in the kidney
    • stimulates RBC synthesis
    • abused in athletics for more energy
  78. Renin
    • made in kidney
    • affects blood pressure
  79. Angiotensin
    • made in liver
    • affects blood pressure
  80. Leptin
    • made in adipose tissue
    • stimulates satiety (feeling full)
  81. Reproductive Hormones
    • made in ovaries in women and testes in men
    • in pregnancy women make them in placenta (maintain pregnancy and prepare the body for birth and lactation)
    • estrogen and progesterone
  82. Similarities of estrogen and testosterone
    • both stimulate growth and development and function of reproductive organs
    • both stimulate secondary sex characteristic changes at puberty
    • both stimulate growth and calcium deposit in bone
  83. Differences of estrogen and testosterone
    • estrogen stimulates ovulation while testosterone spermatogenesis
    • testosterone stimulates increase in muscle mass
  84. progesterone
    • women make it
    • stimulates ovulation and prepares the body for pregnancy
  85. Hormone level homeostasis in the blood
    • thyroid hormone
    • hydrocortizone
    • (testosterone estrogen and progesterone- but more complex)
    • anterior pituitary hormones
  86. Mechanism of hormone level homeostasis in blood
    • involves hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and a target gland (thyroid or adrenal cortex), involves negative feedback
    • hypothalmus secretes releasing hormone for specific hormone to anterior pituitary--> anterior pituitary then releases the hormone stimulated to the target gland which makes the stimulated hormone.
  87. Negative feedback in regulation of hormones
    • when too much of the target gland hormone is made, it can stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to stop making the stimulating hormone or the hypothalamus to stop making releasing hormones (long feedback loops)
    • too much trophic hormone in the anterior pituitary gland can stimulate the hypothalamus to stop making releasing hormone- short feedback loop
    • know diagrams
  88. Short loop
    • when ex TSH gets high, it will directly inhibit the releasing hormone for TSH in the hypothalamus
    • when ex thyroid hormone gets low, you will start making the releasing hormone and TSH again to make more thyroid hormone
  89. Thyroid Hormone disorders
    • goiter
    • hyperthyroidism
    • hypothyroidism
  90. goiter
    • an enlarged thyroid gland
    • could happen if you have hyperthyroidism- a high thyroid hormone level
    • could happen still at normal thyroid hormone level- just a bigger gland
    • could happen if you have hypothyroidism
  91. how could you get a goiter from hypothyroidism?
    low thyroid level (such as low iodine in diet)--> you can't make TH, could be a tumor where the cells that make it are destroyed, etc. level is low so no negative feedback to shut it off, you will keep making releasing hormone and TSH which is trying to make TH but it fang, but it still stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and it doesn't ever shut off because theres not enough TH
  92. Hyperthyroidism
    high metabolic rate- speed up reactions
  93. Hypothyroidism
    slow metabolic rate- children affected will have poor growth and development, including the brain
  94. Type of hypothyroidism in goiter
    graves disease (not a tumor)
  95. Adrenal Gland disorders of hydrocortisone
    • Cushing's syndrome
    • Addison's disease
  96. Cushing's syndrome
    • hydrocortisone too high
    • can cause an increase of fat distribution in the torso and face
    • high blood glucose level
    • poor wound healing
  97. Addison's Disease
    • a low hydrocortisone level
    • low blood glucose
    • general weight loss, muscle weakness, dizziness, nausea, sweat
  98. Hormones of the gonads
    • Testosterone
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • these affect both gonadotrophic hormones (FSH and LH) and hypothalamus (only one releasing hormone for FSH and LH)
  99. what did understanding of the hormones of the gonads lead to?
    • oral contraceptives in women
    • fertility drugs for women
  100. Further regulation of anterior pituitary hormones
    • all cause negative feedback on the hypothalamus releasing hormone that corresponds (FSH/LH, ACTH, TSH, GH or prolactin)
    • prolactin and GH unique because they have both releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate their secretion
  101. Influence of nervous system on hypothalmus
    • higher brain function can influence the hypothalamus and its releasing hormones
    • ex: stress
    • es: neuroendocrine reflexes affecting lactation- sensory input to brain to hypothalamus to make releasing hormone for prolactin