Biology 40s - Phylum Chordata
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Biology 40s - Phylum Chordata
List all the characteristics that distinguish chordates before birth.
dorsal notochord forms backbone
backbone to protect spinal cord
dorsal nerve cords - becomes spine
List all the characteristic that distinguish chordates after birth.
backbone and well developed nervous system
closed circulatory system
ventral heart - number of chambers varies
regulate temperature by
internal body temperature is regulated by its surroundings
maintain its own body temperature at a fixed temperature.
What classes make up the vertebrates?
Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous sharks, rays
Class Osteichthyes - bony fish
Class Amphibia - frogs, salamanders
Class Reptilia - crocodiles, snakes, turtles
Class Aves - penguins, seagulls
Class Mammalia - humans, whales, cats, cows
Class Chondrichthyes: What are examples in class condrichthyes?
Class Chondrichthyes: How do they regulate their body temperature?
Class Chondrichthyes: How many heart chambers?
Class Chondrichthyes: What do they use for gas exchange?
gills (4-7 gills on sides)
Class Chondrichthyes: What do they lack?
Class Chondrichthyes: Define counter shading.
used for protection and predation
makes animal invisible; dark shading allow them to blend with the sea; their light colouring blends with sunlight
Class Chondrichthyes: How do sharks locate food?
find prey using sound waves, smell and sight
can detect electrical signals of other animals because of their electroreceptors (network of specialized cells that can detect electricity)
Class Chondrichthyes: Characteristics of skates and rays.
pectoral fins attached to head
flattened and use camouflage
fills located ventrally
use spiracles for breathing holes located behind eyes
teeth are flattened to crush molluscs
Class Osteichthyes: Characteristics of class osteichthyes.
swim bladder present
temperature control - ectotherms
gas exchange - gills
Class Osteichthyes: What class of fish are 'jawless', include examples.
lampreys and hagfish
Class Amphibia: examples of amphibians
Class Amphibia: Characteristics of class amphibia.
aquatic and terrestrial
3 chambered heart
Class Amphibia: What do amphibians use to breathe?
lungs in adults
juveniles may have gills
Class Amphibia: How do most amphibians move?
use four limbs
Class Amphibia: How do caecilians move?
worm-like and don't have limbs
use bristles and segmentation
Class Amphibia: how do tree frogs move?
have special toe pads that are sticky enough to give them the ability to stick on trees
Class Amphibia: how do amphibians swim?
using webbed feet
Class Amphibia: how do amphibians breathe
gills, skin, lungs
take in oxygen through skin, oxygen enters the bloodstream directly
use lungs on land and diffusion in water
Class Amphibia: define tympanic membrane
located just behind the eye, the tympanic membrane is like an external eardrum
Class Amphibia: define nictitating membrane
semitransparent eyelid that covers eye completely
helps frogs see underwater and hide from predators
Class Reptilia: what evolutionary adaptation does class reptilia have?
allows egg to develop on land
Class Reptilia: characteristics of class reptilia
eggs have soft leathery shell
birds and mammals evolved from reptiles
3-4 heart chambers
mostly terrestrial species
gas exchange through lungs
Class Reptilia: certain adaptations
protective shell (turtles)
dry, watertight skin, covered with overlapping scales (snakes)
limbs absent in some snakes
nest built for young
most reptiles fertilize internally and lay eggs
some can lose their tale for protection, others develop venom or sharp teeth
Class Reptilia: define virgin birth
a rare process in which eggs become embryos without male fertilization
Class Reptilia: define vomeronasal organ
chemo sensory organ in the roof of the mouth
scent particles are picked up by this organ when snakes flick their tongue in and out
Class Reptilia: define thermo sensory
heat sensing organ in the pit below the eye and along the upper or lower jaw
Class Aves: characteristics of birds
lack teeth, have jaws covered in beak
front limbs modified as wings
legs covered in scales
have feathers (modified scales)
birds molt their feathers
lungs & air savs
internal fertilization (lay eggs)
most birds are carnivorous some are scavengers
Class Aves: why do birds have hollow bones
adapted for flight
Class Aves: endothermic or ectothermic
endothermic (use homeostasis)
Class Aves: how many chambers in the heart
Class Aves: what do chicks use to hatch
use an egg tooth which is lost in days after hatching
Class Aves: define furcula
wishbone, located in bird's chest
prevents chest cavity compression during flight
Class Aves: list 5 kinds of feathers
: gives shape and colour of birds
: 1/2 contour + 1/2 down feather, provides insulation and found between contour feathers
: believed to have a sensory function
: provides insulation
: found around the eyes and mouth and are protective in function
Class Aves: what was the first bird
Class Mammalia: characteristics of mammals
mammory glands (provide milk for young)
teeth (different types)
diaphragm (separates lungs/abdomen)
4 chambered heart
Class Mammalia: 3 subclasses of mammals
Class Mammalia: define monotremes
platypus or echidna (anteater)
carry eggs in pouches
body temp. ~22 degress
nurse young after hatching
Class Mammalia: define marsupials
body temp. ~35 degrees
give birth to live young but very undeveloped
young attach to nipples and continue to develop in protective pouch
Class Mammalia: define placentals
placenta for nutrients
body temp. 37 degrees
have placenta (nutritive connection between embryo and uterus)
young are well developed when born