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List all the characteristics that distinguish chordates before birth.
- dorsal notochord forms backbone
- backbone to protect spinal cord
- post-anal tail
- dorsal nerve cords - becomes spine
- gill slits
List all the characteristic that distinguish chordates after birth.
- backbone and well developed nervous system
- closed circulatory system
- ventral heart - number of chambers varies
- regulate temperature by
- - ectotherm
- - endotherm
internal body temperature is regulated by its surroundings
maintain its own body temperature at a fixed temperature.
What classes make up the vertebrates?
- Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous sharks, rays
- Class Osteichthyes - bony fish
- Class Amphibia - frogs, salamanders
- Class Reptilia - crocodiles, snakes, turtles
- Class Aves - penguins, seagulls
- Class Mammalia - humans, whales, cats, cows
Class Chondrichthyes: What are examples in class condrichthyes?
Class Chondrichthyes: How do they regulate their body temperature?
Class Chondrichthyes: How many heart chambers?
Class Chondrichthyes: What do they use for gas exchange?
gills (4-7 gills on sides)
Class Chondrichthyes: What do they lack?
Class Chondrichthyes: Define counter shading.
- used for protection and predation
- makes animal invisible; dark shading allow them to blend with the sea; their light colouring blends with sunlight
Class Chondrichthyes: How do sharks locate food?
- find prey using sound waves, smell and sight
- can detect electrical signals of other animals because of their electroreceptors (network of specialized cells that can detect electricity)
Class Chondrichthyes: Characteristics of skates and rays.
- pectoral fins attached to head
- flattened and use camouflage
- fills located ventrally
- use spiracles for breathing holes located behind eyes
- teeth are flattened to crush molluscs
Class Osteichthyes: Characteristics of class osteichthyes.
- bony fish
- swim bladder present
- temperature control - ectotherms
- all aquatic
- gas exchange - gills
- 2 chambers
Class Osteichthyes: What class of fish are 'jawless', include examples.
- Class Agnatha
- lampreys and hagfish
Class Amphibia: examples of amphibians
Class Amphibia: Characteristics of class amphibia.
- aquatic and terrestrial
- 3 chambered heart
Class Amphibia: What do amphibians use to breathe?
- lungs in adults
- juveniles may have gills
Class Amphibia: How do most amphibians move?
use four limbs
Class Amphibia: How do caecilians move?
- worm-like and don't have limbs
- use bristles and segmentation
Class Amphibia: how do tree frogs move?
have special toe pads that are sticky enough to give them the ability to stick on trees
Class Amphibia: how do amphibians swim?
using webbed feet
Class Amphibia: how do amphibians breathe
- gills, skin, lungs
- take in oxygen through skin, oxygen enters the bloodstream directly
- use lungs on land and diffusion in water
Class Amphibia: define tympanic membrane
located just behind the eye, the tympanic membrane is like an external eardrum
Class Amphibia: define nictitating membrane
- semitransparent eyelid that covers eye completely
- helps frogs see underwater and hide from predators
Class Reptilia: what evolutionary adaptation does class reptilia have?
- amniotic egg
- allows egg to develop on land
Class Reptilia: characteristics of class reptilia
- eggs have soft leathery shell
- birds and mammals evolved from reptiles
- 3-4 heart chambers
- mostly terrestrial species
- gas exchange through lungs
Class Reptilia: certain adaptations
- protective shell (turtles)
- dry, watertight skin, covered with overlapping scales (snakes)
- limbs absent in some snakes
- nest built for young
- most reptiles fertilize internally and lay eggs
- some can lose their tale for protection, others develop venom or sharp teeth
- shed skin
Class Reptilia: define virgin birth
- a rare process in which eggs become embryos without male fertilization
Class Reptilia: define vomeronasal organ
- chemo sensory organ in the roof of the mouth
- scent particles are picked up by this organ when snakes flick their tongue in and out
Class Reptilia: define thermo sensory
heat sensing organ in the pit below the eye and along the upper or lower jaw
Class Aves: characteristics of birds
- lack teeth, have jaws covered in beak
- front limbs modified as wings
- legs covered in scales
- have feathers (modified scales)
- birds molt their feathers
- lungs & air savs
- internal fertilization (lay eggs)
- most birds are carnivorous some are scavengers
Class Aves: why do birds have hollow bones
- adapted for flight
Class Aves: endothermic or ectothermic
endothermic (use homeostasis)
Class Aves: how many chambers in the heart
Class Aves: what do chicks use to hatch
use an egg tooth which is lost in days after hatching
Class Aves: define furcula
- wishbone, located in bird's chest
- prevents chest cavity compression during flight
Class Aves: list 5 kinds of feathers
- contour: gives shape and colour of birds
- semiplume: 1/2 contour + 1/2 down feather, provides insulation and found between contour feathers
- filoplume: believed to have a sensory function
- down: provides insulation
- bristle: found around the eyes and mouth and are protective in function
Class Aves: what was the first bird
Class Mammalia: characteristics of mammals
- mammory glands (provide milk for young)
- teeth (different types)
- diaphragm (separates lungs/abdomen)
- 4 chambered heart
Class Mammalia: 3 subclasses of mammals
Class Mammalia: define monotremes
- egg laying
- platypus or echidna (anteater)
- carry eggs in pouches
- body temp. ~22 degress
- nurse young after hatching
Class Mammalia: define marsupials
- pouched animals
- body temp. ~35 degrees
- give birth to live young but very undeveloped
- young attach to nipples and continue to develop in protective pouch
Class Mammalia: define placentals
- placenta for nutrients
- most mammals
- body temp. 37 degrees
- have placenta (nutritive connection between embryo and uterus)
- young are well developed when born