Biology 40s - Phylum Chordata

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  1. List all the characteristics that distinguish chordates before birth.
    • dorsal notochord forms backbone
    • backbone to protect spinal cord
    • post-anal tail
    • dorsal nerve cords - becomes spine
    • gill slits
  2. List all the characteristic that distinguish chordates after birth.
    • endoskeleton
    • backbone and well developed nervous system
    • closed circulatory system
    • ventral heart - number of chambers varies
    • regulate temperature by
    • - ectotherm
    • - endotherm
  3. Define ectotherm.
    internal body temperature is regulated by its surroundings
  4. Define endotherm.
    maintain its own body temperature at a fixed temperature.
  5. What classes make up the vertebrates?
    • Class Chondrichthyes - cartilagenous sharks, rays
    • Class Osteichthyes - bony fish
    • Class Amphibia - frogs, salamanders
    • Class Reptilia - crocodiles, snakes, turtles
    • Class Aves - penguins, seagulls
    • Class Mammalia - humans, whales, cats, cows
  6. Class Chondrichthyes: What are examples in class condrichthyes?
    • sharks
    • rays
    • skates
    • chimeras
  7. Class Chondrichthyes: How do they regulate their body temperature?
  8. Class Chondrichthyes: How many heart chambers?
  9. Class Chondrichthyes: What do they use for gas exchange?
    gills (4-7 gills on sides)
  10. Class Chondrichthyes: What do they lack?
    swim bladders
  11. Class Chondrichthyes: Define counter shading.
    • used for protection and predation
    • makes animal invisible; dark shading allow them to blend with the sea; their light colouring blends with sunlight
  12. Class Chondrichthyes: How do sharks locate food?
    • find prey using sound waves, smell and sight
    • can detect electrical signals of other animals because of their electroreceptors (network of specialized cells that can detect electricity)
  13. Class Chondrichthyes: Characteristics of skates and rays.
    • pectoral fins attached to head
    • flattened and use camouflage
    • fills located ventrally 
    • use spiracles for breathing holes located behind eyes
    • teeth are flattened to crush molluscs
  14. Class Osteichthyes: Characteristics of class osteichthyes.
    • bony fish
    • swim bladder present
    • temperature control - ectotherms
    • all aquatic
    • gas exchange - gills
    • 2 chambers
  15. Class Osteichthyes: What class of fish are 'jawless', include examples.
    • Class Agnatha
    • lampreys and hagfish
  16. Class Amphibia: examples of amphibians
    • tadpoles
    • frogs
    • toads
    • newts
    • caecilians
  17. Class Amphibia: Characteristics of class amphibia.
    • aquatic and terrestrial 
    • ectotherms
    • 3 chambered heart
  18. Class Amphibia: What do amphibians use to breathe?
    • lungs in adults
    • juveniles may have gills
  19. Class Amphibia: How do most amphibians move?
    use four limbs
  20. Class Amphibia: How do caecilians move?
    • worm-like and don't have limbs
    • use bristles and segmentation
  21. Class Amphibia: how do tree frogs move?
    have special toe pads that are sticky enough to give them the ability to stick on trees
  22. Class Amphibia: how do amphibians swim?
    using webbed feet
  23. Class Amphibia: how do amphibians breathe
    • gills, skin, lungs
    • take in oxygen through skin, oxygen enters the bloodstream directly 
    • use lungs on land and diffusion in water
  24. Class Amphibia: define tympanic membrane
    located just behind the eye, the tympanic membrane is like an external eardrum
  25. Class Amphibia: define nictitating membrane
    • semitransparent eyelid that covers eye completely
    • helps frogs see underwater and hide from predators
  26. Class Reptilia: what evolutionary adaptation does class reptilia have?
    • amniotic egg
    • allows egg to develop on land
  27. Class Reptilia: characteristics of class reptilia
    • eggs have soft leathery shell
    • birds and mammals evolved from reptiles
    • ectotherms
    • 3-4 heart chambers
    • mostly terrestrial species
    • gas exchange through lungs
  28. Class Reptilia: certain adaptations
    • protective shell (turtles)
    • dry, watertight skin, covered with overlapping scales (snakes)
    • limbs absent in some snakes
    • nest built for young
    • most reptiles fertilize internally and lay eggs
    • some can lose their tale for protection, others develop venom or sharp teeth
    • shed skin
  29. Class Reptilia: define virgin birth
    • parthenogenesis
    • a rare process in which eggs become embryos without male fertilization
  30. Class Reptilia: define vomeronasal organ
    • chemo sensory organ in the roof of the mouth
    • scent particles are picked up by this organ when snakes flick their tongue in and out
  31. Class Reptilia: define thermo sensory
    heat sensing organ in the pit below the eye and along the upper or lower jaw
  32. Class Aves: characteristics of birds
    • lack teeth, have jaws covered in beak
    • front limbs modified as wings
    • legs covered in scales
    • have feathers (modified scales)
    • birds molt their feathers
    • lungs & air savs
    • internal fertilization (lay eggs)
    • most birds are carnivorous some are scavengers
  33. Class Aves: why do birds have hollow bones
    • lightweight
    • adapted for flight
  34. Class Aves: endothermic or ectothermic
    endothermic (use homeostasis)
  35. Class Aves: how many chambers in the heart
  36. Class Aves: what do chicks use to hatch
    use an egg tooth which is lost in days after hatching
  37. Class Aves: define furcula
    • wishbone, located in bird's chest
    • prevents chest cavity compression during flight
  38. Class Aves: list 5 kinds of feathers
    • contour: gives shape and colour of birds
    • semiplume: 1/2 contour + 1/2 down feather, provides insulation and found between contour feathers
    • filoplume: believed to have a sensory function
    • down: provides insulation
    • bristle: found around the eyes and mouth and are protective in function
  39. Class Aves: what was the first bird
  40. Class Mammalia: characteristics of mammals
    • hair
    • mammory glands (provide milk for young)
    • teeth (different types)
    • diaphragm (separates lungs/abdomen)
    • lungs
    • endotherms
    • 4 chambered heart
  41. Class Mammalia: 3 subclasses of mammals
    • monotremes
    • masupials
    • placentals
  42. Class Mammalia: define monotremes
    • egg laying
    • platypus or echidna (anteater)
    • carry eggs in pouches
    • body temp. ~22 degress
    • nurse young after hatching
  43. Class Mammalia: define marsupials
    • pouched animals
    • body temp. ~35 degrees
    • give birth to live young but very undeveloped 
    • young attach to nipples and continue to develop in protective pouch
  44. Class Mammalia: define placentals
    • placenta for nutrients
    • most mammals
    • body temp. 37 degrees
    • have placenta (nutritive connection between embryo and uterus)
    • young are well developed when born
Card Set:
Biology 40s - Phylum Chordata
2014-12-05 05:36:38
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