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characteristics of a bureaucracy (4)
- hierarchical structure
- worker specialization
- advancement by merit
- explicit rules
what is a clientele group
group of citizens whose interest are affected by an agency/department & who work to influence its politics
clientele groups are similar to...
factions - Fed 10
4 concerns with bureaucracy
- accountability: bureaucrats are responsible/answerable to their supervisors for their performances
- transparency: not a lot of oversight from Congress
- bureaucratic inertia: slow to change over time. An agency;s goal is to exist and may change its original directive. There's a greater incentive to be cost ineffective
- Is it a democratic process?: Bureaucrats are appointed not elected. There is no say in how well they do their jobs.
2 Benefits of unelected experts
- not persuaded by public opinion
- decisions are made w/ a degree of expertise
Richard Lowis's Iron Triangle includes 3 points
- clientele group
- congressional committee
- bureaucratic group
what does a congressional committee do?
- sends bills to clientele group
- distributes pork to bureaucratic group
Iron Triangle benefits and perks
- benefits those who are only w/in the iron triangle
- each pursues for their own self-interest
history of bureaucracy includes
- spoils system
- civil service
practice of firing government workers from a defeated party and replacing them with workers loyal to the winning party
system where a successful candidate rewards friends, contributors, and party loyalists for their support with jobs, contracts, favors.
refers to nonmilitary employees of the government who are appointed through merit
President Garfield's contribution to Civil Service reform (2)
- Pendleton act: required merit rather than patronage to be the basis for hiring civil servants
- Hatch Act: limits political activities within bureaucracy, cannot participate in electioneering
How many Cabinet level departments are there and how is it headed by
15 departments each led by secretary except Department of Justice, lead by Attorney General.
How are Independent Agency's structured and how much independence does it have?
- structured like Departments (single head appointed by Prez) but are more narrowly focused
- ex) NASA, CIA, NEA
- how independent an agency is depends on its importance and role
what agency is not stated in the Constitution
- Independent Agency
- created by congress as "Necessary & Proper"
How are Independent Agency's structured
makes regulations, limitations, laws for businesses, industries, economic sectors
co-created by Congress to provide to the public a good service that the government cannot profitably provide
what does a Clientele group do?
- campaign money
- agenda building
- provide program alternatives
- program monitoring
Resources interest group provides 4 things
what is Olson's collective action problem
difficulty of getting people to work together to solve a common problem
what is the difference between politics and interest groups
- politics groups: gets people into office, electioneering
- interest groups: gets people into office