Immune System 6.1
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Immune System 6.1
immune system serology lecture 6.1
The study of the body defenses any systems responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign (nonself) material.
A substance that can stimulate the production of antiobdies (immune response).
specific glycoproteins produced in response to an antigenic challenge.
The ability of an antigen to stimulate an immune response.
The process of being protected against foreign antigens.
The Body stimulates an immune response and reacts with self-antigens in a manner similar to the destruction of foreign antigens.
the combining site or sites with which antibodies react.
the portion of a molecule that the body recognizes as an antigen. (makes contact with antigenic determinant)
LMW molecules that can combine with anoter molecule to produce antibody response.
a molecule that when coupled with a hapten, renders the hapten immunogenic.
Soluble protein mediator is released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with an antigen.
serum proteins that attach to a forewign substance and enhance phagocytosis.
a compound that enhances the immune response to the antigen by increaseing its size or length of survival in the circulation.
tissue reaction to injury
immunogen is synonymous with:
antibody combines __________ specifically with the antigen.
five factors affecting antigenicity.
the degree to which an antigen is recognized as non-self by an immune system.
how does molecular weight affect antigenicity.
higher the molecular weight, better the molecule funtions as an antigen.
how does complexity affect antigenicity.
more complex an antigen, more effective it will be.
nucleated cells have many cell surface proteins antigens that readily provoke an immune response.
what does MHC stand for?
Major Histocompatibility Complex
this is second to ABO antigens in influencing survival or rejection of transplated organs.
antigens found in unrelated plants and animals which are identical or closely related. (Cross Reaction)
genetically different individuals are referred to as:
auto antigens will stimulate:
this is based on the sequence of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Antibodies have a ___ chain structure consisting of pairs of identical heavy and light chains that form a Y shape
how many light and heavy chains are there per antibody molecule?
what holds an antibody molecule together?
what are the five classes of heavy chains?
what are the two classes of light chains?
what is responsible for bence-Jones proteins found in urine of multiple myeloma patients?
antibodies can be cleaved into two or more fragments by enzymes _______ and ________.
this antibody fragment is capable of antigen binding, and is made of one light chain and half of a heavy chain.
Fragment antibody binding (Fab)
This portion of a cleaved antibody will crystallize, it contains only the constant region of the heavy chain.
Fragment Crystalline (Fc)
the variable region is located where?
In the Fab portion
what are the five classes of antibodies named for?
Their heavy chains (Mu, Gamma, Alpha, Delta, Epsilon)
this is the major immunoglobulin in normal serum, it readily diffuses into extravascular spaces, and is capable of crossing the placenta.
how many subclasses of IgG are there?
this antibody is 70%-75% of the immunoglobulin pool
This immunoglobulin provides immunity to newborn
although combined only to blood, this pentamer shaped immunoglobuln is the first antibody produced in an immune response.
This immunoglobulin consists of about 10% of the immunoglobulin pool.
what is the main function of IgM?
this is the predominant immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions, saliva, tears, and colostrum.
how many subclasses of IgA are there?
this immunoglobulin has a monomer or dimer shape and is known as a secretor antibody.
This immunoglobulin is less than 1% of the immunoglobulin pool and has no protective funtion.
this immunoglobulin is seen in allergic reactions and parasitic infections.
This Immunoglobulin binds to basophils and mast cells to mediate relase of histamines and heparin.
This immunoglobulin facilitates phagocytosis and kills microbes
what is the primary function of antibodies?
to bind antigens
what is the chemical composition of an antibody?
This antibody subclass has the shortest halflife.
This is the immunity generated by the production of antibodies in response to foreign antigen.
This is when antibodies are produced after infection
Injection of live, killed or attenuated microorganisms or their antigens.
This is temporary immunity resulting from transfer of antibody from one individual to another.
durring pregnancy IgG antibodies are passed from mother to fetus; antibodies are pressed in breast milk
This type immunity occurs when a person in injected with gamma globulin.
this type of immunity is moderated by the link between "T" lymphs and phagocytic cells.
Cell Mediated immunity
cell mediated immunity is responsible for what four immunities?
Contact sensitivity (poison-ivy)
Delayed sensitivity (contact dermatitis)
Immunity to viral and fungal antigens
rejection of foreing tissue grafts
this is the principle leukocyte associated with phagocytosis
these are fixed or wandering cells.
Cell mediated immunity is activated in response to ____________.
where do T lymphocytes occur?
T lymphocytes are what percent of total lymphocytes?
what are the two subpopulations of T lymphocytes?
what cells produce lymphokines?
supressors are what percent of T lymphocytes?
what is the function of suppressor T cells?
turning off "b" cells
helper cells are what percent of lymphocytes?
what is the function of Helper cells?
control production of antibodies by "B" cells
activate suppressor cells
this immunity results from the formation and release or antibodies into the blood stream.
what is the primary component of humoral immunity.
where do B lymphs mature?
B lymphocytes are what percent of total lymphocytes?
less than 15%
B lymps mature into what?
when do plasma cells produce antibodies?
after interaction between macrophages, T lymps, and B lymps
in what phase of immune response are no antibodies detectable?
in what phase of immune response does antibody titer rise?
in what phase of immune response does antibody titer stabilize
in what phase of immune response does antibody titer decline?
in a primary response what is the first antibody class produced?
what is a secondary response also know as?
in a secondary response how is the time different?
shorter lag, longer plateau,more gradual decline
in a secondary reaction how does the type of antibody differ?
IgG is dominant antibody
are antibody levels higher in a primary or secondary response?
this is the body processes that occur to defend the body against foreign antigens?
what type of immunity are you born with that includes epithelial cells, skin pH, and phagocytosis?
Innate (nonspecific) Natural
what type of immunity is considerd the first line of defense?
Innate (nonspecific) natural
this type of immunity is acquired only after a specific antigen is encountered. it can be intra or extracellular.
Adapptive (specific or acquired)
how long does active immunity endure for?
what is the antigen receptor for B cells?
These cells are CD4 positive and produce lymphokines to stimulate other T cell populations.
T helper cells
These cells are CD8 positive and inhbit the action of other T cells.
T suppressor cells
There cells are CD8 positive and they secrete lymphotoxins to destroy cells recognized as foreign.
cytotoxic T cells
these are protein messengers produced by cells.
what are the three phases of humoral immune response?
this cytokines inhibit viral replication
interferon alpha and beta
these cytokines activate macrophages, NK cells, and stimuate B cells to produce antibodies.
This is a group of 18 plasma proteins that are involved in three separate pathways of activation.
what are the three compliment pahtways?
mannose-binding lectin (MBL)
what five complement proteins are unique to the classic pathway
C1 (C1q, C1r, C1s), C4 and C2
what three complement proteins are unique to the alternate pathway?
what six complement proteins are used in all pathways?
these control proteins are normally present to inhibit uncontrolled activation.
C4 binding protein
complement proteins are destroyed by heating serum to what temperature? for how long?
what are the only antibodies that can activate complement?
what are the three functions of Complement?
which pathway is the major system of activation for complement?
what is the classic pathway activated by?
in the classic pathway, C1qrs are held together by what?
in what complement pathway is activation not dependent on attaching to antibodies?
in what complement pathway does microbial and mammalian cell surfaces activate it? (bacterial, fungal, parasites, viruses)
what protein does the alternate pathway begin with?
in what pathway does mast associated serine protease activate complement?
mannose binding lectin
these act as controls in complement activation.
inhibitors and inactivators
which inhibitor binds C1qrs
which inhibitor is required for C3 convertase
what inhibitor blocks C1r and C1s activity?
which inhibitor competes with factor B to bind with C3b
which inhibitor inactivates C3b when bound to factor H
What inhibitor takes out calcium?
these cause the relase of histamine from mast cells and basophils?
Anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a)
what are the two opsonins?
what are the three anaphylatoxins?
what is the chemotactic factor?
this induces and directs migration and accumulation of phagocytic cells.
this inate body defense is an indicator of inflammatory process.
Acute Phase Proteins
this acute phase protein is used to signal infection many hours before it can be confirmed by culture.
C reactive protein (CRP)
what types of Hypersensitivity are humoral mediated?
types I, II, III
what hypersensitivity reaction is cell mediated?
these are immediate-type hypersensitivities like hay fever.
these hypersensitivites are cytotoxic responses like HDN.
these hypersensitives are immune complex reactions.
these hypersensitivites are delayed type reactions such Tuberculin Skin Tests or contact dermatitis.
this represents an immune systems ability to discriminate between self and non-self.
thes alter antigens allowing the body to recognize them as non-self.
this is a fibrosis in the skin and internal organs caused by Raynaud's phenomenon.
Progessive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
In this disorder auto antibodies cause marked atorphy and fibrosis of the islet cells causing insulin deficiency.
Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
in this disorde a goiter is caused by an overstimulated thyroid gland. Exophathalmos (bulging eyes) is a common finding.
this is an idiopathic adrenal atrophy that is characterized by low serum coritsol and elevated corticotrophin levels.
this disorder affects lacrimal, salivary, and other exretory glands.
autoimmune hemolytic anemias are classified into how many groups?
This disorder is associated with antibodies reactive at warm temperature (37
C). In most cases the RBCs are coated with both IgG and complement.
Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (WAIHA)
this is the most common type of hemolytic anemia.
Cold Hemagglutinin Disease (CHAD)
This disorder is characterized by cold reactive IgM when body temp falls to 32
C or below.
Cold hemagglutinin Disease (CHAD)
This disorder was perviously associated with syphilis.
Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
In this disorder IgG reacts with RBC's in cold parts of the body. complement binds to cells and at warmer temps the cells hemolyze.
Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
in this disorder there is an increased distruction of platelets. May be caused by Sulfonamide or morphine.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
this is a disease of the CNS related to immune abnormalities.
Multiple sclerosis (MS)
in this disorder anti-DNA antibodies are produced.
Systemic lupus erythematosus
this disorder has been associated with IgM, IgG, and IgA.
Rheumatoid Factor (RF)