Immune System 6.1

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Immune System 6.1
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2010-08-06 21:52:54
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immune system serology lecture 6.1
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  1. The study of the body defenses any systems responsible for the recognition and disposal of foreign (nonself) material.
    Immunology
  2. A substance that can stimulate the production of antiobdies (immune response).
    Antigen (immunogen)
  3. specific glycoproteins produced in response to an antigenic challenge.
    Antibody (immunoglobulin)
  4. The ability of an antigen to stimulate an immune response.
    Antigenicity
  5. The process of being protected against foreign antigens.
    Immunity
  6. The Body stimulates an immune response and reacts with self-antigens in a manner similar to the destruction of foreign antigens.
    autoimmunity
  7. the combining site or sites with which antibodies react.
    Antigenic determinants
  8. the portion of a molecule that the body recognizes as an antigen. (makes contact with antigenic determinant)
    epitope
  9. LMW molecules that can combine with anoter molecule to produce antibody response.
    Hapten
  10. a molecule that when coupled with a hapten, renders the hapten immunogenic.
    Carrier
  11. Soluble protein mediator is released by sensitized lymphocytes on contact with an antigen.
    Lymphokine
  12. serum proteins that attach to a forewign substance and enhance phagocytosis.
    opsonization
  13. a compound that enhances the immune response to the antigen by increaseing its size or length of survival in the circulation.
    adjuvant
  14. tissue reaction to injury
    inflammation
  15. immunogen is synonymous with:
    antigen
  16. antibody combines __________ specifically with the antigen.
    specifically
  17. five factors affecting antigenicity.
    • foreignness
    • degradability
    • molecular weight
    • structural stability
    • complexity
  18. the degree to which an antigen is recognized as non-self by an immune system.
    foreignness
  19. how does molecular weight affect antigenicity.
    higher the molecular weight, better the molecule funtions as an antigen.
  20. how does complexity affect antigenicity.
    more complex an antigen, more effective it will be.
  21. nucleated cells have many cell surface proteins antigens that readily provoke an immune response.
    histocompatibility
  22. what does MHC stand for?
    Major Histocompatibility Complex
  23. this is second to ABO antigens in influencing survival or rejection of transplated organs.
    Histocompatibility
  24. antigens found in unrelated plants and animals which are identical or closely related. (Cross Reaction)
    Heterophile
  25. genetically different individuals are referred to as:
    allogenic
  26. auto antigens will stimulate:
    auto antibodies
  27. this is based on the sequence of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
    Antibody structure
  28. Antibodies have a ___ chain structure consisting of pairs of identical heavy and light chains that form a Y shape
    four
  29. how many light and heavy chains are there per antibody molecule?
    • 2 heavy
    • 2 light
  30. what holds an antibody molecule together?
    disulfide bond
  31. what are the five classes of heavy chains?
    • gamma
    • mu
    • alpha
    • delta
    • epsilon
  32. what are the two classes of light chains?
    • kappa
    • lambda
  33. what is responsible for bence-Jones proteins found in urine of multiple myeloma patients?
    Light chains
  34. antibodies can be cleaved into two or more fragments by enzymes _______ and ________.
    • Papain
    • Pepsin
  35. this antibody fragment is capable of antigen binding, and is made of one light chain and half of a heavy chain.
    Fragment antibody binding (Fab)
  36. This portion of a cleaved antibody will crystallize, it contains only the constant region of the heavy chain.
    Fragment Crystalline (Fc)
  37. the variable region is located where?
    In the Fab portion
  38. what are the five classes of antibodies named for?
    Their heavy chains (Mu, Gamma, Alpha, Delta, Epsilon)
  39. this is the major immunoglobulin in normal serum, it readily diffuses into extravascular spaces, and is capable of crossing the placenta.
    IgG-Gamma
  40. how many subclasses of IgG are there?
    four
  41. this antibody is 70%-75% of the immunoglobulin pool
    IgG
  42. This immunoglobulin provides immunity to newborn
    IgG
  43. although combined only to blood, this pentamer shaped immunoglobuln is the first antibody produced in an immune response.
    IgM-Mu
  44. This immunoglobulin consists of about 10% of the immunoglobulin pool.
    IgM
  45. what is the main function of IgM?
    agglutination
  46. this is the predominant immunoglobulin in intestinal secretions, saliva, tears, and colostrum.
    IgA- Alpha
  47. how many subclasses of IgA are there?
    two
  48. this immunoglobulin has a monomer or dimer shape and is known as a secretor antibody.
    IgA
  49. This immunoglobulin is less than 1% of the immunoglobulin pool and has no protective funtion.
    IgD- Delta
  50. this immunoglobulin is seen in allergic reactions and parasitic infections.
    IgE- Epsilon
  51. This Immunoglobulin binds to basophils and mast cells to mediate relase of histamines and heparin.
    IgE- Epsilon
  52. This immunoglobulin facilitates phagocytosis and kills microbes
    IgE
  53. what is the primary function of antibodies?
    to bind antigens
  54. what is the chemical composition of an antibody?
    glycoproteins
  55. This antibody subclass has the shortest halflife.
    IgD
  56. This is the immunity generated by the production of antibodies in response to foreign antigen.
    Active immunity.
  57. This is when antibodies are produced after infection
    Active Natural
  58. Injection of live, killed or attenuated microorganisms or their antigens.
    Active Artificial
  59. This is temporary immunity resulting from transfer of antibody from one individual to another.
    Passive Immunity
  60. durring pregnancy IgG antibodies are passed from mother to fetus; antibodies are pressed in breast milk
    Passive natural
  61. This type immunity occurs when a person in injected with gamma globulin.
    passive artificial
  62. this type of immunity is moderated by the link between "T" lymphs and phagocytic cells.
    Cell Mediated immunity
  63. cell mediated immunity is responsible for what four immunities?
    • Contact sensitivity (poison-ivy)
    • Delayed sensitivity (contact dermatitis)
    • Immunity to viral and fungal antigens
    • rejection of foreing tissue grafts
  64. this is the principle leukocyte associated with phagocytosis
    neutrophil
  65. these are fixed or wandering cells.
    moncyte/macrophage
  66. Cell mediated immunity is activated in response to ____________.
    Lymphokines
  67. where do T lymphocytes occur?
    thymus
  68. T lymphocytes are what percent of total lymphocytes?
    60-80%
  69. what are the two subpopulations of T lymphocytes?
    • suppressor/cytotoxic subset
    • helper/inducer subset
  70. what cells produce lymphokines?
    T lymphocytes
  71. supressors are what percent of T lymphocytes?
    25-40%
  72. what is the function of suppressor T cells?
    turning off "b" cells
  73. helper cells are what percent of lymphocytes?
    50-70%
  74. what is the function of Helper cells?
    • control production of antibodies by "B" cells
    • activate suppressor cells
  75. this immunity results from the formation and release or antibodies into the blood stream.
    Humoral Immunity
  76. what is the primary component of humoral immunity.
    B lymphocytes
  77. where do B lymphs mature?
    bone marrow
  78. B lymphocytes are what percent of total lymphocytes?
    less than 15%
  79. B lymps mature into what?
    plasma cells
  80. when do plasma cells produce antibodies?
    after interaction between macrophages, T lymps, and B lymps
  81. in what phase of immune response are no antibodies detectable?
    lag
  82. in what phase of immune response does antibody titer rise?
    log
  83. in what phase of immune response does antibody titer stabilize
    plateau
  84. in what phase of immune response does antibody titer decline?
    decline
  85. in a primary response what is the first antibody class produced?
    IgM
  86. what is a secondary response also know as?
    anamenestic
  87. in a secondary response how is the time different?
    shorter lag, longer plateau,more gradual decline
  88. in a secondary reaction how does the type of antibody differ?
    IgG is dominant antibody
  89. are antibody levels higher in a primary or secondary response?
    Secondary
  90. this is the body processes that occur to defend the body against foreign antigens?
    Immunity
  91. what type of immunity are you born with that includes epithelial cells, skin pH, and phagocytosis?
    Innate (nonspecific) Natural
  92. what type of immunity is considerd the first line of defense?
    Innate (nonspecific) natural
  93. this type of immunity is acquired only after a specific antigen is encountered. it can be intra or extracellular.
    Adapptive (specific or acquired)
  94. how long does active immunity endure for?
    Life
  95. what is the antigen receptor for B cells?
    IgG
  96. These cells are CD4 positive and produce lymphokines to stimulate other T cell populations.
    T helper cells
  97. These cells are CD8 positive and inhbit the action of other T cells.
    T suppressor cells
  98. There cells are CD8 positive and they secrete lymphotoxins to destroy cells recognized as foreign.
    cytotoxic T cells
  99. these are protein messengers produced by cells.
    cytokines
  100. what are the three phases of humoral immune response?
    • antigen elimination
    • primary response
    • secondary response
  101. this cytokines inhibit viral replication
    interferon alpha and beta
  102. these cytokines activate macrophages, NK cells, and stimuate B cells to produce antibodies.
    Interferon gamma
  103. This is a group of 18 plasma proteins that are involved in three separate pathways of activation.
    complement.
  104. what are the three compliment pahtways?
    • classical
    • alternate
    • mannose-binding lectin (MBL)
  105. what five complement proteins are unique to the classic pathway
    C1 (C1q, C1r, C1s), C4 and C2
  106. what three complement proteins are unique to the alternate pathway?
    • Factor B
    • Factor D
    • Properdin
  107. what six complement proteins are used in all pathways?
    • C3
    • C5
    • C6
    • C7
    • C8
    • C9
  108. these control proteins are normally present to inhibit uncontrolled activation.
    • C1 INH
    • Factor 1
    • Factor H
    • C4 binding protein
  109. complement proteins are destroyed by heating serum to what temperature? for how long?
    • 56oC
    • 30 min
  110. what are the only antibodies that can activate complement?
    • IgG
    • IgM
  111. what are the three functions of Complement?
    • Celly Lysis
    • Opsonization
    • Anaphylatoxins
  112. which pathway is the major system of activation for complement?
    Classic
  113. what is the classic pathway activated by?
    Antigen-antibody
  114. in the classic pathway, C1qrs are held together by what?
    calcium
  115. in what complement pathway is activation not dependent on attaching to antibodies?
    alternate pathway
  116. in what complement pathway does microbial and mammalian cell surfaces activate it? (bacterial, fungal, parasites, viruses)
    alternate
  117. what protein does the alternate pathway begin with?
    C3
  118. in what pathway does mast associated serine protease activate complement?
    mannose binding lectin
  119. these act as controls in complement activation.
    inhibitors and inactivators
  120. which inhibitor binds C1qrs
    calcium
  121. which inhibitor is required for C3 convertase
    magnesium
  122. what inhibitor blocks C1r and C1s activity?
    C1 inhibitor
  123. which inhibitor competes with factor B to bind with C3b
    Factor H
  124. which inhibitor inactivates C3b when bound to factor H
    Factor I
  125. What inhibitor takes out calcium?
    EDTA
  126. these cause the relase of histamine from mast cells and basophils?
    Anaphylatoxins (C3a, C4a, C5a)
  127. what are the two opsonins?
    • C3b
    • C4b
  128. what are the three anaphylatoxins?
    • C3a
    • C4a
    • C5a
  129. what is the chemotactic factor?
    C5a
  130. this induces and directs migration and accumulation of phagocytic cells.
    chemotactic factor
  131. this inate body defense is an indicator of inflammatory process.
    Acute Phase Proteins
  132. this acute phase protein is used to signal infection many hours before it can be confirmed by culture.
    C reactive protein (CRP)
  133. what types of Hypersensitivity are humoral mediated?
    types I, II, III
  134. what hypersensitivity reaction is cell mediated?
    IV
  135. these are immediate-type hypersensitivities like hay fever.
    type I
  136. these hypersensitivites are cytotoxic responses like HDN.
    type II
  137. these hypersensitives are immune complex reactions.
    type III
  138. these hypersensitivites are delayed type reactions such Tuberculin Skin Tests or contact dermatitis.
    type IV
  139. this represents an immune systems ability to discriminate between self and non-self.
    autoimmune disorders
  140. thes alter antigens allowing the body to recognize them as non-self.
    exogenous factors
  141. this is a fibrosis in the skin and internal organs caused by Raynaud's phenomenon.
    Progessive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
  142. In this disorder auto antibodies cause marked atorphy and fibrosis of the islet cells causing insulin deficiency.
    Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
  143. in this disorde a goiter is caused by an overstimulated thyroid gland. Exophathalmos (bulging eyes) is a common finding.
    Grave's disease
  144. this is an idiopathic adrenal atrophy that is characterized by low serum coritsol and elevated corticotrophin levels.
    addison's disease
  145. this disorder affects lacrimal, salivary, and other exretory glands.
    Sjogren's syndrome
  146. autoimmune hemolytic anemias are classified into how many groups?
    • four
    • WAIHA
    • CHAD
    • PCH
    • Drug induced
  147. This disorder is associated with antibodies reactive at warm temperature (37oC). In most cases the RBCs are coated with both IgG and complement.
    Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (WAIHA)
  148. this is the most common type of hemolytic anemia.
    Cold Hemagglutinin Disease (CHAD)
  149. This disorder is characterized by cold reactive IgM when body temp falls to 32oC or below.
    Cold hemagglutinin Disease (CHAD)
  150. This disorder was perviously associated with syphilis.
    Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
  151. In this disorder IgG reacts with RBC's in cold parts of the body. complement binds to cells and at warmer temps the cells hemolyze.
    Paroxysmal Cold Hemoglobinuria (PCH)
  152. in this disorder there is an increased distruction of platelets. May be caused by Sulfonamide or morphine.
    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura
  153. this is a disease of the CNS related to immune abnormalities.
    Multiple sclerosis (MS)
  154. in this disorder anti-DNA antibodies are produced.
    Systemic lupus erythematosus
  155. this disorder has been associated with IgM, IgG, and IgA.
    Rheumatoid Factor (RF)

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