psych final

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psych final
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  1. 1. Sexuality (development; misconceptions)
    • o Sexuality is influenced by the values we learned in our family
    • o Cultural values & Familial expectations
    • o Abstinence is a valid choice
    • o Honestly question yourself
    • o What are your reasons for choosing to have or not have sex?
    • o How do you feel about discussing sex?
    • o Define your boundaries and enforce them
  2. 2. guilt & misconceptions
    • o GUILT over sexual feelings
    • o Lack of control?
    • o GUILT over sexual experiences
    • o masturbation, affairs, promiscuity, “abnormal” sexual practices
    • o MISCONCEPTIONS about sexuality
    • o Become aware of verbal and non-verbal messages regarding sexuality and gender-role behavior
  3. Intimacy
    close familiarity or friendship; closeness.
  4. 3. Sensuality vs. sexuality
    • o Sexuality- expressing ourselves through physical contact with another.
    • Sensuality-experiencing pleasure with all 5 senses
    • Sound
    • Touch
    • Taste
    • Sight
    • Smell
    • Sensuality does not always include sexual activity
  5. • Abstinence
    - not doing anything sexual
  6. • STDs
    HIV/AIDS

    • Human
    • Immunodeficiency Virus- positive vs. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    • STIs-
    • all are treatable, few are curable

    • AIDS,
    • HPV, Genital Warts, etc.

    • Can
    • cause: sterility, organ damage, and other life-threatening complications
  7. • Loneliness vs. solitude
    • • LONELINESS- GENERALLY TRIGGERED BY CERTAIN LIFE EVENTS.
    • • -DEATH, BREAKUPS, RELOCATION
    • • SOLITUDE IS TIME TO…
    • • - BE WITH OURSELVES
    • • - DISCOVER WHO WE ARE
    • • - RENEW OURSELVES
    • • WE NEED TIME ALONE AS MUCH AS WE NEED HUMAN CONNECTION
    • • -NEED TO PROCESS OUR EXPERIENCES
    • • -RELAXATION FROM ALL THE WORLD’S INPUT
    • • Types of loneliness
    • • Literal-*******************Transient Loneliness: brief feelings of loneliness that occur due to an expected or unexpected life-changing event.
    • • Chronic Loneliness: occurs when people are unable to establish meaningful interpersonal relationships over a long period of time.
    • Spiritual************************************
    • • Everyday Loneliness: involves the pain of being isolated from other people.
    • • -associated with a fear of intimacy
    • • -feelings of shame
    • • -fear of being unlovable
    • • - rejection
    • • Existential Loneliness: the profound sense that there is an unbridgeable gap that separates us from others.
  8. • Work
    - what you do to survive and thrive to be the best
  9. • Effects of loneliness
    • --In childhood – Reliving childhood experiences of loneliness can help us come to grips with our present fears about being alone or lonely.
    • -In adolescence – more likely to experience loneliness than others
    • -In young adulthood _ we experiment with ways of being, and we establish
    • • lifestyles that may remain with us for many years.
    • -In middle age -can result in new feelings of loneliness./ relate events
    • -In the later years- As we age, we may lose some of our vitality and sense of power or attractiveness.
  10. • Contrast between: Career vs. Occupation vs. Job
    • • -Your Career - day u start working and end. everything u do/ every job ull ever have
    • • -An occupation - field
    • • -Your job - position u hold for the moment
  11. John Holland’s 6 occupational personality types-
    • Conventional/ realistic
    • Enterprising/ investigatetive
    • Social/ artistic
  12. • Recreation
    -what u do for urself
  13. • Why are humans unique?
    more than just reproducing, finding meaning
  14. Logotherapy
    • -“therapy through meaning” or “healing
    • • through meaning.”
  15. • Values
    -are core beliefs that influence how we act.
  16. Compassion
    • -essential part of one’s
    • spiritual development, involves caring about another’s suffering and doing something
    • • about it.
  17. Spirituality
    -encompasses our relationship to the universe and is an avenue for finding meaning and purpose in living
  18. Philosophy of life-
    is made up of the fundamental beliefs, attitudes, and values that govern a person’s behavior.
  19. Basic spiritual values
    • -qualities of goodness,
    • kindness, love, compassion, tolerance, forgiveness, human warmth, and caring.
  20. Culture
    • -pertains to the knowledge, language,
    • values, and customs that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next generation.
  21. Discrimination
    -biased behavior in action
  22. Ethnocentric
    • Bias-using our own
    • culture or country as a standard of what is right and good and judging other cultures or countries by our own frame of reference.
  23. Stereotypes
    -judgmental generalization applied to an individual without regard to his or her own uniqueness;
  24. Yalom and death anxiety
    • -Everyday loneliness involves the pain of being isolated from other people.
    • This is an interpersonal loneliness often associated with the fear of intimacy
    • and feelings of shame, rejection, or of being unlovable. Existential loneliness (or
    • existential isolation) is associated with a profound sense of an unbridgeable gap that
    • separates us from others.
    • ---The wish to survive and the dread
    • of annihilation are always present. This is a pervasive fear to live with, yet it can
    • teach us as much about living as dying.
    • • Morrie Schwartz was an elderly professor
  25. Suicide statistics (textbook)
    30,00 suicides a yr
  26. Myths about suicide
    • -There are few or no warning signs for suicide.
    • ■ People who talk about committing suicide will not do it.
    • Young people are more likely than old people to kill themselves.
    • ■ Once a suicidal crisis has passed, the person is out of danger.
    • ■ Suicide is genetic.
    • • ■ People who attempt suicide are intent on dying.
  27. • Stages of dying (5)
    • Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
  28. Warning signs
    • Suicidal thoughts and threats
    • Absence of a sense of purpose in life
    • ■ Previous suicidal threats or comments
    • ■ Preoccupation with death, including talk of feeling hopeless and helpless
    • Giving away prized possessions
    • ■ Discussing specific methods and a time for killing oneself
    • Anxiety, agitation, and depression
    • ■ Increased substance use
    • Isolation and withdrawal from friends and family
    • ■ Extreme changes of behavior and sudden personality changes
    • ■ A sudden need to get one’s life in order
    • ■ A sudden appearance of calm or peace after a period during which some of these above-listed characteristics were evident
  29. Bereavement
    -refers to the exploration of feelings generated by a significant loss.
  30. Mourning
    -pertains to the formal practices of an individual or community in response to a death
  31. Worden’s tasks of mourning
    • -1. Accept the reality of the loss. Before mourning can begin, the death of a person
    • needs to be faced. Accepting this loss needs to be done both intellectually and
    • emotionally. For many there will be a time lag before they are able to experience
    • the emotional impact of the reality of a loss.
    • 2. Work through the pain of grief. When the bereaved accept the reality of their
    • loss, pain usually follows. Those in mourning need to experience and express
    • the emotional pain of a loss, and at the same time learn to nurture themselves
    • both physically and emotionally.
    • 3. Adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing. Learning to develop
    • a new relationship with the deceased is a gradual and unfolding process.
    • Although the bereaved do not have to let go of all ties to the person who has
    • died, it is important to say good-bye and to grieve the loss.
    • 4. Emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life. The phrase “moving on
    • with life” entails finding a meaningful way to live without the person who
    • has died. Mourners eventually need to develop a new sense of identity based
    • on a life without the deceased. This task involves restructuring the relationship
    • with the deceased in a way that is satisfying, but that also reflects the lifecircumstances that have changed after the loss.
  32. Assisted Suicide
    -involves providing lethal means to cause a person’s death, with the individual performing the act that ends his or her own life
  33. Hastened death
    -involves speeding up the dying process, which can entail withholding or withdrawing life support.
  34. Advanced directives
    - are designed to protect the self-determination of people who have reached a point in their illness when they are not able to make decisions on their own about their care.
  35. Gender role socialization
    -process of learning the norms and roles that are expected of people in a particular society
  36. Gender stereotypes
    -widely accepted beliefs about females'’ and males’ abilities, personality traits, and behavior patterns
  37. • Androgyny
    -both genders. Anima=men//animus woman
  38. Schlossberg’s 5 paths *************************
    -Continuers - keep on move on into dfferent things

    -Adventurers - take on life and go

    -Searchers - searching for meaning

    -Easy Gliders - go with the follow

    -Retreaters - give up
  39. • Traditional female roles
    • -Resistant to traditional gender roles
    • • Limiting gender stereotypes
    • • poor self concept, wellbeing, and physical health
    • • Caretaker of the family

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