Epidemiology

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macdegnan
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290719
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Epidemiology
Updated:
2014-12-06 17:51:19
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studydesign
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Epidemiology
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  1. Completing the clinical picture involves all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. Identification of who is susceptible for disease
    B. identification of the efficacy of the public health problem
    C. identification of types of exposures-capable of causing disease 
    d. all of the above
    B. identification of the efficacy of the public health problem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. The term agent in the epidemiologic triangle is equivalent to which of the following?
    A. host
    B. environment
    C. field investigator
    D. pathogen
    D. pathogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. A subclinical case is the same as which one(s) of the following?
    A. healthy carrier
    B. convalescent carrier
    C. intermittent 
    D. incubatory 
    C. intermittent and d. healthy carrier
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. Which of the following is an example of active primary prevention?
    a. screening
    b. vitamin fortified bread
    c. immunization
    d. all the above
    d. all of the above
  5. Which of the following best defines pathogen?
    a. extent of pathogenicity
    b. a microscopic organism (plant or animal)
    c. organisms capable of causing disease
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  6. The capacity and strength of the disease to produce severe and fatal cases of illness is:
    A. pathogenicity
    B. variolation
    C. virulence
    D. infectivity
    C. virulence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Which of the following is NOT a type of immunity?
    a. acquired
    b. active
    c. passive
    d. transfer 
    e. all the above are types of immunity
  8. A description of communicable disease prevention and control may include all of the following except:
    a. Remove, emliminate, or contain the cause or source of infection
    b. disrupt and block the chain of disease transmission
    c. protect the susceptible population against infection and disease
    d. all of the above can prevent or control communicable disease
    d. all of the above can prevent or control communicable disease
  9. Which of the following involves the population as the unit of analysis?
    A. Ecologic Study
    B. Case-report, case series
    C. Cohort
    D. Cross-sectioonal
    A. Ecologic Study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. An age-adjusted rate is a weighted average of which of the following?
    a. Age-specific rates
    b. Point prevalence proportions
    c. Attack rates
    d. None of the above
  11. How does infectious and noninfectious disease relate to communicable and noncommunicable diseases and conditions?
  12. Who was the father of epidemiology?
    A. Plato 
    B. Aristotle
    C. Hippocrates
    D. Socrates
    C. Hippocrates
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Hippocrates is most known for which of the following?
    a. He observed different diseases occurred in different locations.
    b. He noted that malaria and yellow fever were prevalent in swampy areas.
    c. He introduced terms like epidemic and endemic
    d. All of the above
    d. All the above
  14. Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689) was different then other epidemiologists of his time. How so?
    A. Thomas Sydenham discovered that certain disease were prevalent in certain areas
    B. He believed injecting a weaker strain of infection would protect against stronger strains
    C. He introduced fresh air, exercise, and a healthy diet to be sufficient remedies. 
    D. He introduced the importance of washing hands
    C. He introduced fresh air, exercise, and a healthy diet to be sufficient remedies.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Louis Pasteur did all of the following EXCEPT:
    A. Discovered a vaccine for anthrax
    B. Concluded bacteria have the ability to cause disease
    C. Discovered a vaccine for small pox
    D. With Robert Koch, discovered the germ theory of disease
    C. Discovered a vaccine for small pox
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. —Using the “Bills of Mortality” in London,
    who systematically recorded age, sex, who died, of what, where they died, and
    when?
    A. Ignaz Semmelweise 
    B. John Snow
    C. Edward Jenner
    D. John Graunt
    D. John Graunt
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Mary Malon a.k.a Typhoid Mary was a chronic carrier of the disease typhoid fever. True or False: Mary Malon had no symptoms of the disease. She taught epidemiologists the importance of keeping track of carriers
    True
  18. In 1887, T.K Takaki,  eradicated beriberi from the Japanese Navy by adding vegetables, meat, and fish to their diet, which was
    mostly rice. What type of disease is beriberi?
    A. sexually transmitted
    B. nutritional
    C. autoimmune
    D. cold
    B. nutritional
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. _____ is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in developing countries.
    A. Beriberi
    B. Kwashiorkor
    C. Rickets
    D. Scurvy
    B. Kwashiorkor
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. In 1948 the Framingham, Massachusetts,
    cardiovascular disease study was launched. What type of study design was it?
    A. experimental
    B. prospective cohort study
    C. cross-sectional
    D. retrospective cohort study
    B. prospective cohort study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Which of the following are examples of descriptive study designs?
    a. Ecological
    b. Cross-sectional
    c. Case Reports and Case Series
    d. All of the above
    d. All of the above
  22. Which of the following defines a case series study design?
    A. involves a small group of patients with a similar diagnosis 
    B. provides evidence for smaller scaled studies
    C. involves a profile  of a single individual 
    d. none of the above defines a case series
    A. involves a small group of patients with a similar diagnosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. Another name for a cross-sectional survey would be
    A. prevalence survery
    B. serial survey
    C. convienence survey
    D. incidence survey
    A. prevalence survery
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. A cross-sectional survey has no follow up period and is conducted over a short time period. The unit of analysis is 
    a. the individual
    b. the population
    a. the individual
  25. Which of the following defines a cyclic trend?
    A. represents long term changes in health-related states and/or events
    B. represents short term changes in health related states and/or events
    C. represents periodic increases and decreases in the occurrence of health-related states and/or events
    C. represents periodic increases and decreases in the occurrence of health-related states and/or events 

    (a. is secular trends and b. is short term trends)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. Which of the following is not an example of analytical study designs?
    A. cohort
    B. cross-sectional 
    C. experimental
    D. case-control
    e. all the above are examples of analytic studies
    B. cross sectional
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. The role of chance may affect a statistical association because of:
    A. Misclassification
    B. Selection
    C. Random variation from sample to sample
    D. Loss to follow up
    E. Lack of knowledge from participants about research
    C. Random variation from sample to sample
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. For randomization to effectively balance out the effect of confounding factors in an experimental study, we assume:
    A. A large sample size
    B. The funding for the study comes from the government, not private sources
    C. The randomized participants have never met each other
    D. The assessing investigator is blinded
    e. None of the above
    A. A large sample size
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What is an important goal of any intervention study?
    a. To provide a definitive positive or null effect
    b. To result in the proper distribution of resources
    c. To guide health policy
    d. To identifiy intervention aspects that might be improved
    e. All of the above
    e. All of the above
  30. What phase trial is relatively small (up to 50 people), randomized and blinded that tests tolerability, safe dosage, side effects, and how the body copes with the drug?
    A. Phase II
    B. Phase IV
    C. Phase I
    D. Phase III
    A. Phase II
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. What phase trial is relatively small (up to 30 people) unblinded, uncontrolled and used to determine the safety of a test on humans?
    A. Phase I
    B. Phase II
    C. Phase III
    D. Phase IV
    A. Phase I
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. What phase trial can typically have up to thousands of patients, involve random assignment and is used to determine the efficacy of the drug?

    A. Phase II
    B. Phase I
    C. Phase III
    D. Phase IV
    C. Phase III
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  33. What phase is conducted after approval of the FDA to assess the rate of side effects and explore further therapeutic issues. 
    A. Phase III
    B. Phase IV
    C. Phase II
    D. Phase I
    B. Phase IV
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  34. Which of the following is NOT true of the Tuskegee syphilis study?
    A. New drugs were tested to assess the efficacy of older chemical treatments
    B. The study had nothing to do with syphilis
    C. No treatment was offered for syphilis
    d. All the above are true
    A. New drugs were tested to assess the efficacy of older chemical treatments

    No new drugs were tested nor was the efficacy asses in regards too older chemical treatments
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  35. True or False:
    In a factorial design all subjects in the cohort are given the placebo, followed for some time, then those who remained in the study are assigned a treatment or given another placebo
    False this is a run-in design
  36. True or False: 
    In a factorial design participants are assigned to one of the four groups. These groups represent the different combinations of the two interventions.
    True
  37. Which method is most useful for controlling confounding at the design level of an experimental study?
    A. Blinding
    B. Multiple Regressions
    C. Randomization
    D. Stratification
    C. Randomization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which of the following epidemiological study designs is the least effective at establishing a causal association?
    A. Ecologic study
    B. Cross-sectional study
    C. Community trial
    D. Retrospective cohort study
    A. Ecologic study
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. True or False:
    In a case-control study the exposure is identified before the outcome
    • False:
    • In a case-control study the outcome is identified before the exposure
  40. List the steps in conducting a case-control study
    • 1. Identify the outcome before the exposure
    • (there can be only one outcome, but many exposures) 
    • 2. Identify cases
    • 3. Identify controls
    • 4. Investigate whether the cases are more or less likely than the controls to have past experiences, lifestyles, behaviors or controls.
  41. Why is sampling important and why is it important to have a large sample size?
    Sampling is important because of response bias and confounding variables. A large sample size is used to produce confidence.
  42. True or False:
    Control subjects in a case-control study should look like the case subjects with the exception of not having the disease.
    True
  43. What is concomitant variation?
    Concomitant variation is the frequency or strength of a risk factor with frequency of the disease or condition.
  44. What is matching?
    Matching is making controls similar to cases. Such as matching gender, age, socioeconomic status, etc
  45. How is a cohort study retrospective?
    A cohort study is retrospective because it looks back at medical records and questionnaires

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