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What are the foundations of diagnosing someone as mentally ill?
Doing something out of the ordinary
ex: Walking around naked
Emotionally or mentally troubling; so much that it will scare other people
ex: Schizophrenic people telling others what they see
Incapable of being explained
ex: Killing animals for (apparently) no reason
Hurting or keeping the individual from achieving goals, or functioning properly in society
ex: Staying in your room all day
What is the ONLY purpose of the DSM?
What does the DSM stand for?
Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
How many major categories of mental illnesses are there?
What is on each of the Axis' in the Multi-Axial Model?:
- Axis I:
- Clinical Disorders
- Other illnesses other than Personality Disorders
- Axis II:
- Personality Disorders
- Mental Retardation
- Axis III:
- General Medical Conditions
- (ex: Being overweight)
- Axis IV:
- Environmental influences
What are the problems with labeling someone as mentally ill?
Once we label someone they are looked at differently and gives a suggestion
What are the POSITIVES of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
Telling someone they're gifted or bright might be enough to make them work harder and better
What are the NEGATIVES of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy?
Labels can make you want to act negatively since others may view you this way as well
How does one go about getting information out of a mentally ill individual?
- Closed Ended vs. Open Ended Questions
- Interview Process
- Intelligence Tests
- Projective and Self-Report Personality Tests
Similar to having a conversation with the individual to find out all the necessary information
Uses open-ended questions
Mix between the unstructured and structured interview
Uses both open and closed questions
Follows a preset of questions
Uses close-ended questions
What is the best type of interview?
What are 2 types of Intelligence Tests?
- Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale
What is the only Projective Test?
Rorschach Inkblot Test
You project your thoughts and feeling onto the counselor
Solely used as a conversation starter or icebreaker
Rorschach Inkblot Test
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
What is one common habit that people who suffer with anxiety do?
What is the misconception with it?
- Cigarette Smoking
- They think that it reduces their anxiety, but it actually worsens it
5 examples of Anxiety Disorders?
- Generalized Anxiety Disorder
- Panic Disorder
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of automatic nervous system arousal
Usually tied to insomnia and has difficulty concentrating
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety disorders affect women _____ than men.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experience terror, chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
How is a Panic Disorder similar to the feeling of a Heart Attack?
- Comes unexpectedly
- Shortness of breath
Smokers of Panic Disorder are at a ______ greater risk of developing a debilitating disease.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation
Intense shyness and fear of social situations, leading to avoidance of such.
Social Anxiety Disorder
What was Social Anxiety Disorder called formerly?
Fear or avoidance of situations, such as crowds or wide open places where one has felt loss of control and panic
A disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and or actions (compulsions)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Unwanted thoughts that are intrusive in nature
Repetitive unwanted actions
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, numbness of feeling, and/or insomnia that lingers for 4 weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
What are 3 types of PTSD and how long does each last?
- Acute: Less than 3 months
- Chronic: Greater than 3 months
- With delayed on set: After 6 months
Positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises
Psychological disorder characterized by emotional extremes.
What are 4 examples of Mood Disorders?
- Major Depressive Disorder
- Bipolar disorder
- Dysthymic Disorder
Is the same as Major Depressive Disorder, but lasts for more than 2 years and has no manic or hypomanic episodes
Mood disorder in which someone, for no reason or in the absence of drugs/another medical condition, goes through two or more weeks of depressed moods and has a strong correlation with insomnia.
Major Depressive Disorder
What else is Major Depressive Disorder known as?
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
A mood disorder in which a person alternates between depression and mania
What was Bipolar Disorder formerly known as?
What are the 2 types of Bipolar Disorder?
Is the typical version of Bipolar Disorder
There are depressed and manic episodes
Can add in with rapid cycling (quick mood changes = 18 hrs)
Not as common type of bipolar disorder
Contains hypomanic (very irritable)
Why does Bipolar Disorder have such a high suicide rate?
They fear of lapsing into the depressive state after going through the manic episode
About how many hours does it take for a person to change from depression to mania in Bipolar Disorder?
What are 4 examples of Personality Disorders?
- Anti-Social Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder
- Histrionic Personality Disorder
- Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Psychological disorder characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning
Compulsive fretting, overthinking about our problems and their causes
A personality disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience, has no remorse, is very ruthless and cunning.
Anti-Social Personality Disorder (APD)
What childhood disorder can turn into Anti-Social Personality Disorder if not treated?
For Anti-Social Personality Disorder, PET Scans show little activity in what lobe?
The frontal lobe
Anti-Social Personality Disorder is most commonly found in...
People with Anti-Social Personality Disorder are sometimes called...
Most, if not all Serial Killers have...
Anti-Social Personality Disorder
Personality disorder that has trouble with relationships, trust issues, emotions change very quickly, persistent flucuation in self-image and self-mutilating behavior
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
What are 3 examples of Borderline Personality Disorder that can be self-damaging
- Sex Habits
- Substance Abuse
- Reckless Driving
Personality Disorder that occurs mostly in FEMALES. Is very similar to Borderline Personality Disorder. These people love attention, dress slutty, and are drama queens.
Histronic Personality Disorder (HPD)
What is the one key goal of Histronic Personality Disorder?
Personality Disorder that occurs mostly in MALES. These people need praise and compliments. They lack sympathy.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
What is the one key goal of Narcissistic Personality Disorder?
To gain a bigger ego
Symptoms in addition to normal behavior
Not having the symptoms of normal behavior
What types of medicines do these disorders take?
- Anxiety= Xanax/Valium
- Bipolar = Lithium
- Depression = Zoloft
- ADHD = Adderall
- Schizophrenia = Thorazine/Haldrol
- GAD = Effexor
Someone who is so mentally disturbed/drained that it leads to them creating physical ailments
The symptoms are not intentionally produced or fake.
Preoccupation with fears of having or the idea that one has a serious disease based on a person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms
Who created the Cognitive Triad of Depression?
Creating unrealistic expectations
ex: "Should and Must"