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What is the defininition of a community?
A specific population or a group of people living in the same geographic area under similar regulations and having common values, interests and needs.
According to Hunt, what three main things make up a community?
- People: vital statistics or demographics, families, culture
- Location: community boundarie
- Social systems: family, friends, church
What does a healthy community provide?
- Provides accessible healthcare services for all residents
- Provides and maintain a safe and healthy environment.
- Provides the infrastructure (Roads, schools, parks, fire, emergency, trash, police) to meet the needs of the community)
What is community based healthcare?
- Designed to meet needs of people as they move between and among healthcare settings.
- Healthcare and services within a defined geographic region.
Who are members of the health care team?
- Specialized RNs
- Physician's assistants
- Physical Therapist
- Respiratory Therapist
- Occupational Therapist
- Speech Therapist
- Social Worker
- Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
What is the role of the physician?
- Known as the “gate-keeper”
- Emphasis is on disease
- Primarily responsible for diagnosis and treatment of illness or injury.
What are some specialized roles of nursing?
- Advanced Practice Nurses
- – Nurse Practitioner
- – Clinical Nurse Specialist
- – Nurse Midwife
- – Nurse Anesthetist
- -Case Manager
What does a physician's assistant do?
} Practices under supervision of a physician
What does a Physical Therapist do?
} Role is to restore function following after an injury or illness.
Trained in techniques to assist lung function and oxygenation.
What does an occupational therapist do?
Assists clients to adapt to physical limitations.
- Assist clients who have impaired speech due to hearing difficulties, stroke, and general speech disturbances.
- Also assists patients with swallowing problems.
What does a dietician do?
Manages and plans for the dietary needs of patients
What does a pharmacist do?
- Responsible for tracking possible medication interactions and actual and potential medication errors.
- Licensed to prepare and dispense medications.
What does a social worker do?
- Involved in activities related to counseling, referrals, and decision- making assistance for patients and families
- Social Worker
What do Unlicensed Assistive Personnel do?
- Help the registered nurse provide direct care to patients.
- Working jointly with others
- Collaboration is the key to excellent care for clients in any setting, whether hospital, home, industry, schools, or any other setting where people receive care.
- Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
Examples of Healthcare Facilities including Practice Settings and Practice Opportunities
- } Primary Care
- } Home Care
- } Nursing Centers
- } Ambulatory Care Centers and Clinics
- } Specialized Care
- } Long-Term Care
- } Hospice Services
- } Hospital Setting
} Hospitals vary in size and services offered and are considered community agencies.
} Focus primarily on acute care
Ownership of Health Care Delivery Organizations
- Public ownership
- Private ownership
- – For-Profit
- – Not-for-Profit
Acute Care Hospitals:
- Nurse’s roles:
- – Administrators,managers,staff nurses, advance practice nurses,educators and researchers.
- -Largest employer of nurses.
Acute care nursing:
- Focus is on illness and diagnosis.
- Increased dependence on the system.
- Loss of autonomy.
- Limited control by patient and family.
- Care provided in an institution or facility.
- – hospital,long- term care facility
- – generally acute care focused
- – stay >24 hours
- – require health care services but doesn’t need to stay within institution
- – dramatic increase in outpatient services
- – majority of services provided outside hospital
- - Less than 23 hours
Community Based Nursing:
- -Community focused and client centered
- -holistic approach
- -prevention and advocacy focus
- -substantial client and nurse autonomy
- -Requires collaboration and critical thinking
- -consists of specialties and subspecialties including wellness care, ambulatory care, and home care
Care provided outside hopital setting, (clinics, schools, ddrs. surgery centers
Primary Care Centers:
- -Services:assessment, diagnosis,minor illness &surgery, well-child care, etc.
- -Nurse’s role-perform assessment, prepare clients, perform lab work, medication and injection administration, assist with minor surgery, record keeping, documentation.
- -Health services provided by physicians (general or specialist) or NP in office.
- } Allows individuals to receive health care services while recovering in their home.
- } Most rapidly growing area of health care system.
- } Services are delivered through Community Health Department, VNA, hospital based case managers and home health agencies.
- } Provides healthcare services to individuals and families in place of residence.
Home Health Care Nursing:
- – knowledge
- – ability to work independently
- – adaptability
- – Accountability
- – Collaboration
- } Skills required for home health nursing.
Home Health Care Nursing continued
- } Roles of home health nurse
- – provider of care
- – client advocate
- – educator
- – coordinator of services
- } Goal: to promote health and wellness and to prevent disease
- } Delivery of primary care to specific populations
- } Focus is on community health,outreach, and wellness
- } Provides services to underserved or disadvantaged populations.
- } Managed by nurses
- } Free-standing or within hospital
- } Conveniently located,non-traditional office hours,walk-in services
- } Nurse activities: performs health assessments,provides direct care, educates, advocates,coordinates
- } Care provided by physician groups or nurse practitioner (NP)
Specialized Care Center:
- } Mental Health Centers
- } Rural Health Centers
- } Rehabilitation Centers
- } Schools
- } Industry
- } Homeless shelters
- } Churches
- Day-Care Centers
Long-Term Care Facilities
- } Provides health care &activity of daily living for people who are physically and mentally unable to care for themselves independently.
- } Extended care from days to years.
- } Independent facility or associated with hospital.
- } Nurse’s role-direct care, administrator, supervisor, educator
} Purpose-to provide terminally ill person and family with health and support services to enhance quality of life
} Nurse’s role: Supervisor, liaison, respite care provider, direct care and bereavement support
- -Purpose: to provide primary caregivers for the homebound ill, disabled or elderly patients some time away from the responsibilities of day to day care
- -Nurses role: Liaison and coordinator for respite care referrals
Health Care Agencies:
- } Nurses role: participate in health screenings and educational programs
- } Government: funded by tax dollars
- } Nurses role: provide care within the facility and give information about and make referrals to these agencies
- } Voluntary: non profit community agencies financed by private donations, grants, fundraisers. Provide a setting for support groups
} What are the components of a Community Assessment?
- – People
- – Place-Location
- – Social Systems
Community Assessment Continued
- } Data Collection Methods
- -Windshield Survey
- – Informant Interviews
- – Participant Observations
- – Secondary Data