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Every Gecko’s foot has 14000 setae/mm2 and each seta has 100-1000 spatulae. The main force ofthis adhesion is Van der Waals forces. Though Van der Waals force is weak by itself, the number ofinteractions present strengthens the overall magnitude of force. The arrangement of the spatulaeallows a very large number of very close contacts with surfaces, even if they are smooth or rough.Geckos walk by overextending their toes and peel the foot off the surface. Teflon (specificallydesigned to resist Van der Waals forces) is the only known material that Geckos cannot adhere to
Colors in Butterflies
- The colors in butterflies are not due to dye molecules. Butterfly wings are photonic band gap(PBG) materials:certain wavelengths of light cannot pass through and are therefore reflected. In butterflies,these wavelengths of light are seen as colors on the wings.
- Inspired manmade PBG fibers are based on the same principle.
- Fabrication of Photonic crystals.
Spiders extrude liquid protein through their silk glands. The protein molecules form tough, stretchy fibers that the spider weaves into the silk threads it uses to make its webs.
A large number of entangled hooks contribute to a high attractive force
The surface of the lotus is rough yet hydrophobic. This structure repels water and ensures waterflow on the surface to clean the contaminating particles by carrying them with water droplets.
- Micro-pump inspired by leaves.
- It can be a smart adaptive material (moving toward light source, etc.)
Adaptive material, moves flower head toward light
- Pine cone effect: scales react to humidity. Scales bend when the cone dries out.
- Inspired smart fabrics - textile with small flaps, which automatically open when the person wearing it starts to sweat. flaps close for opp. sit.
Natural fiber composits
Plant fibers to replace glass fibre in low priced prod. such a building materials. more damage tolerant than synthetic materials.
- It is very rough, covered in v-shaped bumps.
- Rough surface has been shown to reduce friction when the shark glides through water --> efficient swimmers.
- Fabrics to model shark skin to reduce drag by channeling the water along grooves in the fabric.
- Insects use changes of the air-flow field over their bodies, pressure changes and vibrations to detect prey or predator.
- Achieved using specialized hair sensors.
- From insects to novel sensing-perception-action-systems.
Solar energy inspired cells/vehicles
- Tip vortex management - airplanes
- Reduction in induced drag for branched wing tip, modeled after bird.
Structural elements of bone, latticework of tiny ridges call trabaculae, used to design structures, i.e. Eiffel Tower.
- Hexagonal compartments make for a great design and extremely robust structure.
- Packing material, base structure
Inspired artificial muscles - electroactive polymers