Ch 15 Final Review ID Terms

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Ch 15 Final Review ID Terms
2014-12-06 11:34:01
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  1. metabolism
    A linked series of chemical reactions that begins with a particular molecule and converts it into some other molecule (s) in a carefully defined fashion
  2. metabolic pathway
    Can be divided into those that convert energy from fuels into biologically useful forms and those that require inputs of energy to proceed
  3. catabolism
    Reactions that transform fuels into cellular energy
  4. anabolism
    Reactions that require energy
  5. amphibolic pathway
    Pathways that are either anabolic or catabolic, depending on the energy conditions in the cell
  6. ATP
    Nucleotide consisting of adenine, a ribose, and a triphosphate unit; active form complexed with Mg2+ or Mn2+; energy-rich molecule because its triphosphate unit contains two phosphoanhydride bonds
  7. Nucleoside monophosphate kinase
    Family of kinases that catalyze the phosphorylation of nucleoside monophosphate
  8. Nucleoside diphosphate kinase
    Enzyme that catalyzes phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates
  9. Ion gradients
    They exist across membranes and are produced by the oxidation of fuel molecules or by photosynthesis; they couple thermodynamically unfavorable reactions to favorable ones
  10. NAD+
    Accepts a hydrogen ion and two electrons, which are equivalent to a hydride ion; used for generation of ATP
  11. FAD
    Carries electrons and accepts two electrons and two protons
  12. NADP+
    Different from NAD in that the 2’-hydroxyl group of its adenosine moiety is esterified with phosphate; carries electrons for reductive biosynthesis
  13. Vitamin A
    Precursor of retinal, the light-senstive group in rhodopsin and other visual pigments and retinoic acid, an important signaling molecule
  14. Vitamin C
    Aka: ascorbate; acts as an antioxidant
  15. Vitamin D
    A metabolite of it is a hormone that regulates the metabolism of calcium and phosophorus
  16. Vitamin K
    Required for normal blood clotting
  17. Oxdation-reduction reactions
    Essential components of many pathways; useful energy is derived form oxidation of carbon compounds
  18. Ligation reactiions
    Form bonds by using free energy from ATP cleavage
  19. Isomerization reactions
    Rearrages particular atoms within a molecule to prepare the molecule for subsequent reactions
  20. Group-transfer reactions
    Transfer groups and are used to synthesize ATP
  21. Hydrolytic reactions
    Cleave bonds by addition of water
  22. Lyases
    Enzymes that catalyze the addition of functional groups to double bonds to form single bonds or remove functional groups form single bonds to make double bonds