Ch 16 Final ID Terms

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Ch 16 Final ID Terms
2014-12-06 11:38:42
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  1. Glycolysis
    The sequence of reactions that metabolizes one molecule of glucose to two molecules of pyruvate with concomitant net production of two molecules of ATP; anaerobic; has a trapping and a preparation phase
  2. Gluceogenesis
    Metabolic fuels are salvaged to synthesize glucose in this process
  3. Kinases
    Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphoryl group from ATP to an acceptor
  4. Hexokinase
    Enzyme in step one of glycolysis
  5. 1,3-BPG
    An acyl phosphate, which is a mixed anhydride of phosphoric acid and a carboxylic acid; has high phosphoryl-transfer potential
  6. Thioester
    High-energy compounds found in many biochemical pathways; reacts with orthophosphate to form 1,3-BPG in step one of stage two of glycolysis
  7. Mutase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the intramolecular shift of a chemical group
  8. Fermentation
    An ATP-generating process in which organic compounds act both as the donor and as the acceptor of electrons
  9. Galactosemia
    Disruption of galactose metabolism; most common form is classic; and, it is an inherited deficiency in galactose 1-phosphate uridyl transferase activity; causes vomiting and diarrhea in infants, liver enlargement, jaundice, cataracts, etc. Treatment: remove galactose and lactose form the diet
  10. Adenylate kinase
    Catalyzes the conversion of ADP+ADP ATP and AMP
  11. Glucokinase
    An isozyme of hexokinase in the liver that phosphorylates glucose when it is abundant because its affinity for glucose is lower than hexokinase; its role is to provide glucose 6-phosphate for the synthesis of glycogen and for the formation of fatty acids.
  12. Glucose transporters
    A family of transporters that enables glucose to cross the plasma membranes of animal cells; GLUT1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; each glucose transporter as a 12-transmembrane-helix structure similar to that of lactose permease
  13. GLUT1 and GLUT3
    Responsible for basal glucose uptake; Km for glucose is low; transport glucose into cells at a constant rate
  14. GLUT 2
    Present in liver and pancreatic beta cells; has a very high Km value; so, glucose enters tissues at a large rate when there is a lot of glucose in the blood
  15. GLUT4
    Transmports glucose into muscle and fat cells; increases in the presence of insulin, which signals the fed state. Insulin promotes the uptake of glucose by muscle and fat
  16. GLUT5
    Functions primarily as a fructose transporter