Psych quiz #7

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  1. causes of conflict
    • social dilemmas
    • threats
  2. solutions to conflict
    • negotiation
    • justice
  3. social dilemmas
    • what is best for the individual is not the best of the whole group
    • ex: prisoner's dilemma, whether to confess or not
  4. prisoner's dilemma
    • two men arrested for murder (30 years) but only enough evidence to convict for breaking and entering for (3 years)
    • suspects put in different rooms 
    • if one confesses: he will go free, other will go to jail for 30 years
    • if both confess: both go to jail for 10 years
    • neither confess: both go to jail for 3 years
  5. cooperation
    • not everyone competes: if you expect to work w/ partner in future, more interdependent cultures are less cut-throat
    • communication lessens competition
    •    - start by cooperating, then do onto partner what he did to you
    •    - shows willingness to cooperate but backbone to not be exploited
  6. public goods
    • form of dilemma
    • individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain the public good
    • ex: taxes, blood supply, donations
  7. tragedy of the commons
    • form of dilemma
    • everyone takes from a common pool of goods
    •    - can replenish itself if used in moderation
    •    - will disappear if overused 
    •    - ex: fishing
  8. sunk costs
    • form of dilemma
    • justify a behavior b/c of the investment already made
    • ex: relationships, stock market
  9. solutions to dilemmas
    • regulations: leads to loss of freedom and bureaucracy
    • smaller groups- make everyone personally responsible (like helping)
    • communication
    • change the payoffs
  10. do threats reduce conflict
  11. negotiations
    • bargaining
    • mediation
    • arbitration
    • trust is critical
  12. bargaining
    • offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
    • key goal is to reduce opponents aspirations that they believe that they cannot get what they want
  13. integrative solution
    • when negotiating, best to seek an agreement based on interests
    • parties concede unimportant issues that are important to the other side
    • lack of trust can undermine ability to reach such as solution
  14. mediation
    • a neutral third-party tries to resolve a conflict by facilitating communication and offering suggestions
    • allows parties to save face and make concessions
    • mediator knows all the information, reducing the common knowledge effect
  15. arbitration
    • a neutral third-party studies both sides and imposes a settlement
    • sometimes arbitration can make people more extreme, in the hopes of getting the best possible offer
    • final-offer arbitration: the person selects from two (or more) outcomes to avoid this
  16. justice
    • what makes people decide whether they were treated fairly
    • three kinds:
    •    - distributive
    •    - procedural 
    •    - interpersonal
  17. distributive justice
    • seek balance between contributions and rewards
    • want ratio to be equal
    • more bothered by receiving less than getting more
    • in eye of beholder, we decide what is fair
    • self-serving bias is also important, we think we deserve more than objective rating
  18. procedural justice
    • the fairness of the procedure used to allocate resources:
    •    - consistency
    •    - accuracy
    •    - opportunity for corrections
    • if lacking, turn to more convert methods (theft, sabotage, aggression)
    • those who feel that they've been treated fairly are more likely to obey the law
    • change perception
  19. interpersonal justice
    • consideration and courtesy shown to group members by those distributing the reward
    •    - clear and rational reason for rewards
    •    - courtesy and sensitivity with which we are informed about rewards
    • use convert methods to deal with lack of interpersonal justice
  20. legal processes that involve social psychology principles
    • obeying the law
    • arresting the right subject
    • prosecution and defense negotiate (plea bargain)
    • trial (criminal or civil)
  21. deterrence theory
    • obeying the law
    • people refrain from criminal activity b/c of the threat of legal punishment, as long as the punishment is severe, swift and certain
    • assumes:
    •    - people know the penalties
    •    - can control behavior
    •    - making rational decision
    • increasing the certainty of being caught decreases crime (sobriety checkpoints)
  22. deterrence theory and murder
    murder is not often well-thought through, hence death penalty is less effective
  23. general theory of crime
    • people often faced with the temptation to commit a crime, but don't always act
    • crime is a product of opportunity to commit a crime and the person fails to restrain the temptation to act, the event will occur
    • well supported by evidence
  24. arresting the right subject
    • eyewitness testimony
    • many examples of eyewitness testimony being wrong
    • jurors overestimate the accuracy of eye witness testimony
  25. three stages of memory processing
    • acquisition
    • storage
    • retrieval
    • errors can happen at any of these stages
  26. acquisition
    • stage of memory processing
    • can't notice everything, especially under poor conditions
    • notice salient features (like gun pointing at you) rather than details (shape of face)
  27. storage
    • stage of memory processing
    • memories can get mixed up
    • reconstructive memory: memories become distorted by info encountered after event occurred
    • ex: people shown slides of accident then asked if car passed another car at yield sign and others asked same thing but stop sign instead, most people believed that the sign was the sign they were asked about
  28. retrieval
    • in a line up, pick the person who most looks like a criminal
    • often the distracters in a line up aren't very good
  29. solutions to retrieval problems
    • make sure everyone in line-up resembles the description of the suspect
    • tell witness that the suspect may or may not be in the line up
    • do not always put in initial lineup
    • present pictures sequentially (less likely to compare)
    • present witness with both pictures and voice recording
  30. deception
    detecting deception is difficult; experts are no better than untrained college students
  31. plea bargaining and confessions: do people confess to crimes they did not commit
    • people will confess when they didn't do anything
    • they will come to believe that confession and even remember committing the "crime"
  32. juries
    • judges often disagree with the juries' decision 25% of the time
    • juries are sometimes exposed to evidence that is ruled inadmissible
    •    - can't really un-hear the information
    •    - affects decision
    •    - emotional evidence is much less likely to be ignored
  33. pretrial publicity
    • related to instructions to ignore, pretrial publicity can bias a jury
    • people tend to believe the media, plus the media gets info from the police, so only one side is presented
    • asking jurors if they can remain neutral isn't effective; mat even increase bias
Card Set:
Psych quiz #7
2014-12-06 19:18:47
socialpsych joshisamoho

chapters 13-15
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