Security - IR

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Security - IR
2014-12-06 12:18:34
Security International Relations nicole

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  1. definition of security
    a state's ability to defend itself against external threats
  2. Traditional realist approach to security - states
    assumption that states are constrained in their choices by an international system that is inherently anarchic

    • the prime concern for a state is survival
    • although alliances, states are responsible for their own survival
  3. Realism bullet points
    • The international system is anarchic.
    • There is no actor above states capable of regulating their interactions; states must arrive at relations with other states on their own, rather than it being dictated to them by some higher controlling entity.

    • States are the most important actors.
    • All states within the system are unitary, rational actors
    • States tend to pursue self-interest.

    The primary concern of all states is survival.
  4. Realist perspective - Hobbes
    state of nature categorized by a permanent system of anarchy

    • state of nature is a highly dangerous enviroment
    • therefore, no security

    anarchic system of nature most insecure where the power prevail over the weak. Though powerful must watch backs
  5. Realists like Mearsheimer
    • conceptualize IR as a "constant state of war"
    • - perspective highlights that states cannot trust each other

    "If a state cannot survive it cannot pursue other goals"
  6. traditional realism explains (the old) Security Dilemma
    • any action to "enhance" security will have implications
    • if a state increases its security, others will feel insecure - ongoing cycle

    • eg intl arms race in Cold War
    • Realism was a dominant paradigm in the Cold War (nuclear escalation and bipolar division)
  7. New Security Dilemma?
    the end of bipolarity and the Cold War saw security as a concept widen

    • more than just physical state security
    • included more contemporary concepts such a societal and human security
  8. definition of human security
    • an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities
    • focus shifts to protecting individuals
  9. The Contempory Security Agenda
    European Security Strategy 2003 and US Security Strategy 2010 form basis of security policy

    seem to converge to some degree thus creating a "Western" conception of what matters

    emphasis on terrorism, proliferation of WMD and regional conflicts (with a focus on the Middle East)
  10. European Security Strategy 2003
    identifies global challenges and threats to security

    promotes an international order based on multilateralism
  11. US Security Agenda 2010
    issued by Obama administration

    advocated increased engagement with Russia, China, India

    nuclear proliferation and terrorism as priorities
  12. Liberalism - Nye
    and Keohane accept the international system is in a state of anarchy

    But believe international co-operation is possible and would mitigate the negative effects of anarchy
  13. Liberalism - concept of "complex interdependence"
    concept coined by Keohane, a liberal institutionalist

    • resulting from co-operation
    • prevents states from going to War with each other
  14. the concept of transnationalism and an empirical example
    entails that IR is about more than just state interaction

    heightened interconnectivity between peopleĀ 

    cross-border co-operation that recedes the economic and social significance of borders

    • eg European intergration - peace project
    • BUT realists - self interest (especially in the realms of "low politics")
  15. concept of Positive Peace
    • concept by Galtung
    • peace not to be define negatively as the absence of violence

    instead an emphasis on the restoration of relationships and managing conflict positively

    inspired concept of human security
  16. Securitization
    a potential power tool - evident the agenda is not given naturally

    declaring something as a "security matter" politicises the issue, sense of urgency

    legitimizes exceptional measures