Perliminary General exam

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rpanek
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290777
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Perliminary General exam
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2014-12-06 13:54:20
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  1. outline the preliminary general exam
    • A. Owners complaint/Anamnesis
    • 2 parts:
    •  1. Past history
    •  2. Immediate history
    • B. Signalment of Animal - for legal purposes
    •  1. Breed
    •  2. Age
    •  3. Sex
    •  4. Markings
    •  5. Colors
    •  6. Tattoo Mark
    •  7. Brand
    •  8. name/number
    •  9. Perminant blemishes
    • C. General Exam
    •  1. General demeaner
    •  2. Condition
    •  3. Examination of external surface
    •  4. examination of mucous membranes
    •  5. pulse
    •  6. respiration
    •  7. temperature
    •  8. feces
    •  9. urine
    •  10. Examination of head (eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, pharynx)
    •  11. Papillary/consensual light reflex
    • 12. Palpate external lymph nodes
  2. what is considered the most important part of the PGE?
    gathering anamnesis/questioning the owner
  3. Why do we need a good description of the animal?
    Legal evidence
  4. What are the two parts for anamnesis
    • past history
    • immediate history
  5. What are the two don'ts when gathering history
    • Don't ask leading questions
    • don't ask questions with yes or no answers
  6. another word for history
    anamnesis
  7. word for the description of an animal
    signalment
  8. What are 9 signalments that should be noted when doing the PGE?
    • breed
    • age
    • sex
    • color
    • markings
    • brand
    • name and number
    • tattoo marks
    • permanent blemishes or defects
  9. basically used to identify the animal simply as looking healthy or looking sick
    general demeanor
  10. we are looking for all parts of the skeleton being covered with flesh giving the body a well rounded appearance
    condition
  11. how do you determine the condition of the body?
    look at the hips and ribs
  12. what is a good indication of the state of the health of the animal
    skin
  13. what constitutes good healthy coat
    • smooth
    • glossy
    • pliable
    • elastic skin
  14. what conistitues as a bad coat
    • dry
    • scruff
    • loss of elasticity
    • animal is said to be "hidebound"
  15. what are the two most common complaints from small animal owners when it comes to the integumentary system
    • alopecia
    • pruritis
  16. term for gas under the skin
    emphysema
  17. what are 5 terms used to describe the underlying body structures
    • Doughy
    • firm
    • hard
    • flactuant
    • emphysema
  18. from the hands on approach what areas should be evaluated
    • ears
    • eyes
    • nose
    • lymph nodes
    • vulva
    • penis
  19. when looking at the visible mucus membranes what areas should be looked at
    • eyelids
    • mouth (lips and cheeks)
    • opening of the penis/vulva
  20. what do these colors mean in a mucous membrane
    pink
    blue
    yellow
    pale
    • pink - healthy good blood circulation
    • blue- lack of O2 in the blood
    • yellow - blood parasites and possible hepatitis
    • pale - anemia, shock, parasites, large vessel being severed
  21. what can cause pale mucous membranes
    blood sucking parasites (hookworm anemia), anemia, shock, large vessles have bee severed
  22. what can cause blue colored mucous membranes
    • heart failure (CHF)
    • lung disease
    • nitrate poisioning
  23. what can cause yellow mucous membranes
    • autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)
    • hepatic syndrome
    • blockage of the bile ducts
  24. term for inflammation of the lip
    lip fold pyoderma
  25. what are 7 things that can alter heart rate?
    • exercise
    • excitement
    • weather
    • fever
    • pain
    • inflammation
    • local heart disease
  26. How is a pulse obtained and what should never be used to take a pulse and why
    • placing the first three fingers over an artery and feeling it expand with each beat of the heart
    • the thumb, because it has a pulse of its own
  27. Where is a pulse taken in these animals
    dog
    sheep
    cat
    cattle
    horse
    • dog - femoral artery
    • sheep -
    • cats - femoral artery
    • cattle -
    • horse - submandibular artery
  28. what is a tool used to listen to the heart
    stethoscope
  29. what is the term for listening with the stethoscope on various body organs
    auscultation
  30. what are the normal pulse rates for these animals: (bpm)
    dog
    cat
    sheep and goat
    cattle
    horse
    swine
    poultry
    • dog - 60-120
    • cat - 110 - 130
    • sheep and goat - 70 - 80
    • cattle - 40 - 80
    • swine - 60 - 80
    • poultry - 200 - 400
  31. what are three things that should be kept in mind when taking a pulse
    • larger animals/older animals have a slower pulse
    • males have a slower pulse then females
    • murmurs, abnormal heart sounds should be elevated
  32. what are three guidelines for good auscultation
    • perform in a quiet room
    • use the bell portion of the stethoscope for low-pitch sounds and the diaphragm for high pitch sounds
    • place the earpieces directly anterioly to align with the ear canal
  33. what are two categories for abnormal sounding when listening to the heart
    • crackles (rales) sounds like cellophane, due to fluid in the alveoli
    • wheezez (rhonchii) air way obstruction
  34. A term for fluctuation in the heart rate concurrent with respiration and increasing heart rate seen with respiration
    • sinus arrhythmia
    • normal in dogs
  35. What are the two phases of respiration
    • breathing in (inspiration)
    • breathing out (expiration)
  36. where is respiration most important
    surgery
  37. what are the normal respiration rates for these animals
    dog
    cat
    cattle
    horse
    swine
    sheep and goats
    chicken
    • dog - 10-30
    • cat - 20-30
    • cattle 10-30
    • horse 8-15
    • swine 8-16
    • sheep and goat 10-20
    • chicken 15-30
  38. what two things are coughing associated with and what does coughing at night suggest
    • respiratory and cardiovascular disease
    • heart disease
  39. what is the first noticeable sign of infection
    fever (pyrexia)
  40. where are temperatures often obtained
    • rectum - most domestic animals
    • under the wings - birds
  41. what are the normal temperature for these animals
    dog
    cat
    sheep
    goat
    cattle
    horse
    swine
    • dog 100-102
    • cat 100-102
    • sheep - 102 - 104
    • goat 101 - 104
    • cattle 100-102
    • horse 99-101
    • swine 100-104
  42. what are 5 things that can alter body temperature
    • exercise
    • season
    • pregnancy
    • transportation
    • excitement
  43. what are two things that can cause a change in feces color and consistency
    • diet
    • drugs
  44. what drugs can cause a reddish coloration in feces
    Phenothiazine (cattle dewormer)
  45. what are two things can cause blood in stool
    • dark tarry stool - hookworms, blood mixes with feces in the upper digestive tract
    • bright red blood - whipworms/colitis, blood from the lower digestive tract doesn't have time to mix with feces
  46. what are three things that can cause urine to be darker
    • Phenothiazine - red
    • Methylene blue - blue
    • Diathiazanine Iodide (Dizan) - purple
  47. term for excessive drinking
    polydipsia
  48. excessive urination
    polyuria
  49. small amounts/frequent urination
    pollakiuria
  50. difficult urination
    dysuria
  51. straining during urination
    stranguria
  52. what two systems make up the Urogenital system
    • reproductive system
    • urinary system
  53. term for a difficult birth
    dystocia
  54. Term for snoring
    steror
  55. why is it good to check the ears
    • otitis
    • earwax with mites
    • yeast infections
    • grass awns
  56. When examining the head what 5 things should be examined as well
    • eyes
    • oral cavity
    • pharynx
    • ears
    • nose
  57. term for when pupil construction is normal
    Miosis
  58. term for dilation of the pupil in the presence of light is abnormal
    mydriasis
  59. term for pupil constriction in the eye with light stimulus with result in pupil constriction in eye with no light stimulus
    Consensual reflex
  60. What two things do we listen for when auscultating the chest
    • determine the heart rate and rhythm
    • to check for the presence of abnormal heart or lung sounds
  61. where are the 4 valves of the heart found interms of intercostal space
    • left side
    •  pulmonary valve - 3
    •  aortic valve - 4
    •  mitral valve - 5
    • right side
    •  tricuspid valve - 5
  62. What can enlarged lymph nodes indicate
    • local or systemic infections
    • allergy
    • neoplastic disease (cancer)
  63. What are the 4 common lymph nodes that we palpate for
    • mandibular
    • axillary
    • inguinal
    • popliteal

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