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Immigration Act of 1965:
the Immigration Act of 1965 served to increase the number of Black immigrants across the country. In the 1920s and 30s race determined place of residence, jobs, school placement, and day-to-day treatment, thereby lumping West Indians and African Americans together. a dramatic decrease in the immigrant population served to encourage Black immigrants to work with African Americans. The Act of 1965 caused West Indians and other immigrants to notice that there was a large enough constituency of coethnics to gain representation and they did not need to build race-based coalitions with African Americans in order to make their political desires a reality.
Significance: we should not expect many afro-caribiean to mobilize around their racial identity in the same way that African Americans have, especially around issues of racial inequality. this also demonstrates the tension African Americans can have with black immigrants who like to distance themselves from American Blacks and sometimes see them selfs as better.
- Is when more privileged members within a marginal group (have access to and mobalizy within dominant groups and insinuations when theses people) have power to deny the rights of others within their group, define group membership and regulate group behaviors.
- police in group, behavior.
- Significance: could explain why crosscutting issues like AIDs are not addressed
- politics of respectability. not going to talk about our bad problems cause make us look bad. how or why marginal groups appear heterogenous in their agenda’s while this is not the case. this coupled with politics of respectably may make it difficult to address issues like AIDS.
are set of rules that regulate racial and ethnic group categories and intergroup behavior. they are especially those rules implemented by the state to monitor and regulate large populations, which involve monitoring or regulating citizens according to particular group IDS to allocate rights and responsibilities according to prevailing policy and strategy.
Significance: When they consistently reinforce racial or ethnic group IDs, this is likely to impede the political mobilization of a generalized threat and to facilitate patterns of denial and blame across group lines, leading to less aggressive national responses
linked fate: page 10
arises from a shared history and common lived experience among african americans as well as from their recognition of significant political, social and especially economic difference btw blacks and other groups (white). by exaggerating out-group differences and minimizing in-group variation, many african american use racial group interests as a proxy for self-interest. the progress of the group, therefore, is understood as an appropriate, accurate and accessible evaluative measure of one’s individual success.
Significance: african americans come to see their individual interest or fate closely if not directly tied to the progress and advancement of the entire black community. this has significant political implications, much of the political information which black Americans have had access to or viewed as relevant has been and continues to be structured around racial group interests.
arises from a shared history and common lived experience among african americans as well as from their recognition of significant political, social and especially economic difference btw blacks and other groups (white). by exaggerating out-group differences and minimizing in-group variation, many african american use racial group interests as a proxy for self-interest. the progress of the group, therefore, is understood as an appropriate, accurate and accessible evaluative measure of one’s individual success. Significance: african americans come to see their individual interest or fate closely if not directly tied to the progress and advancement of the entire black community. this has significant political implications, much of the political information which black Americans have had access to or viewed as relevant has been and continues to be structured around racial group interests.
refers to those concerns which disproportionately and directly affect only certain segments of a marginal group. these issues stand in contrast to consensus issues, which are understood to constrain or oppress with equal probability (although through different manifestations) all identifiable marginal group members. these issues are often situated among those subpopulations of marginal communities that are the most vulnerable economically, socially and politically and whose vulnerable status is linked to narrative that emphasize the “questionable” moral standing of the subpopulation. Significance: these issues calling for prominence in the public imagination. they challenge the attempts of community leaders who attempt to legitimize marginal group members and their concerns to dominate institutions and groups. They mobilize one primary identity (race) but also the other primary identity. Makes the community definition or ownership ambiguous, especially when such issue are perceived as mitigating the strength of one’s racial ID.
factor proportion model:
an economic model that assumes perfect substitutability between natives and immigrants and people perceive that immigrants will take their jobs. That means that natives dont have any higher value than an immigrant People thus become afraid and there reaction is to stop immigration.
Employed in many Latin American and Caribbean countries, Mestizaje is the idea that a prevalence of mixed ancestry in a society means that its citizens are racially homogeneous. It concludes that racial differences cannot be made because everyone is racially mixed. However mestizaje evolved from the idea that racial mixing would improve the racial stock of their countries through “whitening.” They suggest that they have a “shade” problem rather than a race problem, but whitening is denying Black ancestry and is thus really racism.
Significance: those who are at the lighter are provided more benefits, while, those who are darker are more disadvantaged. This is pigmentocracy — or a social hierarchy based on skin color. It is important to keep this in mind when we consider how Black immigrants from these regions understand and develop their own racial identity while in the United States.
politics of responsibility:
occurred through middle class and working class black women who through the black baptist church club moment strove to encourage the regulation of individual behavior in order to refute the racist stereotypes that shaped their lives. They saw respectably as demanding that everyone in the community assume responsibility fo behavioral self regulation and self improvement along moral, educational, and economic lines. thus they strove to remind or police members of the community of the goal was to distance oneself as far a possible from images perpetuated by racist stereotypes. individual behavior they saw determined the collective fate of african americans.
Importance: those members of the community who needed help but where seen as feeding into the negative stereotypes where thus shunned. This explains the reluctance and slow response of the African American community to address the AIDs endemic.
Or referred to as the one-drop rule states that those who had at least one ancestor of African descent were identified as Black. This developed by “scientific” communities developed this idea and "determined” that Blacks were inherently and genetically inferior to whites. They stated that any mixing between “pure” white blood and “tainted” Black blood would contaminant and dilute the purity of whiteness. This lead to exclusive boundaries of white identity and it was incorporated into American political institutions, (including the courts, state legislatures, U.S. Congress, and other bureaucratic institutions.) These institutions created and maintained laws based on racial pseudoscience for most of America’s history.
Significance: This continues to shapes racial boundaries. Some Americans and new immigrants to the United States have challenged the notion of the “one drop,” because it requires one to identify as black based on their ancestors and it lumps all black people together, failing to capture the social heritage of individuals whose cultures and identities were not formed in the American context of slavery, discrimination, and segregation.
St. George is the proposed new city that the primarily white and middle class faction of Baton Rouge wants to create in order to form their own school district. They no longer want to bus their children across the Baton Rouge district to help eliminate segregation. They perceive that the school system is failing their children and that they do not want to pay for the poorer faction to get an education.
Significance: this move is dividing the city along racial and class lines. It would harm all disatvanged students in Baton Rouge because the group that would succeed is a significant funding source. This also an attempt a institutional racism and classism.