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A form of government where citizens participate equally in the proposal, development and establishment of the laws by which their society is run
Representative Democracy definition and thinkers
- Madison and Bentham
- involves the election of governmental officials by the people being represented
Liberal democracy definition
- A representative democracy where elected representatives have decision making power which is subject to the rule of law
- Moderated by a constitution or laws that protect the freedoms and rights of individuals
Why is there democracy?
- Barrington Moore 1966 (US France UK)
- emphasizes economic development and the rise of the bourgeoisie which could rival the power of the landed nobility
not possible to have a democracy without economic development and modernization as it it is difficult to establish political equality in an economically unequal society
Types of Democracies (3)
- Procedural and minimalistic - competitive struggle for people's votes
- Substantive and maximalist - emphasizes fairness, equality and inclusion
- But this can only be an ideal! Impossible for a society to reach full substantive democracy
- Dahl - make procedural democracy more substantial, it should have a combination of rights and civil liberties
Illiberal democracies (participation without civil rights) eg Russia which prevents freedom of people through control of the media
- Schumpter argues classical model is unrealistic as mass participation is not viable
- suggests democracy is a utopian ideal
- argues democratic as there is competition between elites
Participatory Theory of Democracy
- emphasises broad particpation of constituents
- advocates more involved forms of citizen participation, greater political representation
- argues political apathy is not inevitable with greater participation
- argues participation is possible eg technology, referendums
Is democracy in crisis?
- Lower participation in electoral process
- Paradox of market capitalism - income inequalities generate political inequalities
- Lower efficacy of the vote -there is an imbalance between largely national political systems and more internationalised economic systems
Held's view of democracy and globalisation
- "democracy in nation states has not been accompanied by democratic relations among states"
- he argues for a need to develop "cosmopolitan democracy"
- (where citizens of a nation state are affected by forces beyond the boundaries of their own state thus an international global order must be established)