Exam 1

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Exam 1
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  1. 2) Which of the following is not a common component of biomolecules?

    A) Carbon
    B) Hydrogen
    C) Oxygen
    D) Nitrogen
    E) Chlorine
    E
  2. 5) Which of the following is not a role played by carbohydrates in living cells?

    A) Energy source
    B) Structural support
    C) Intercellular communication
    D) Both A and B are correct
    E) All are roles played by carbohydrates in living cells
    E
  3. Which of the following is not a waste product of living organisms

    A) Carbon dioxide
    B) Water
    C) Urea
    D) Ammonia
    E) Glycine
    E
  4. Biochemistry is defined as

    A) The study of life processes
    B) The study of the molecular basis of life
    C) The study of living organisms
    D) The study of organic compounds in living organisms
    E)  The study of living compounds
    B
  5.  One of the principal methods that organisms use to obtain energy from chemical bonds is by ___________.

    A) Substitution reactions
    B) Dehydration reactions
    C) Oxidation/reduction reactions
    D) Hydration reactions
    E) Addition reactions
    C
  6.  The following is an example of which reaction class?

    CH3Br  +  HSCH2CH(NH2)COOH   CH3SCH2CH(NH2)COOH  +  Br-  +  H+

    A) Substitution
    B) Elimination
    C) Addition
    D) Isomerization
    E) Oxidation/Reduction
    A
  7.  The following is an example of which reaction class

    HOOCCH=CHCOOH  +  H2O     HOOCCH2CH(OH)COOH

    A) Substitution
    B) Elimination
    C) Addition
    D) Isomerization
    E) Oxidation/Reduction
    C
  8.  The following is an example of which reaction class?

      CH3CH2OH      CH3CHO   + H2O

    A) Substitution
    B) Elimination
    C) Addition
    D) Isomerization
    E) Oxidation/Reduction
    E
  9. The following molecule is an example of which single class of compounds?


    CH3CH2CH(NH2)COOH

    A) Amine
    B) Acid
    C) Ester
    D) Amino acid
    E) Alcohol
    D
  10. he following molecule is an example of which class of compounds?

    CH3CH2CH2COOCH2CH3

    A) Hydrocarbon
    B) Acid
    C) Ester
    D) Ether
    E) Aldehyde
    C
  11.  The following molecule is an example of which class of compounds?

    CH3CH2CH2COOH

    A) Hydrocarbon
    B) Acid
    C) Alcohol
    D) Aldehyde
    E) Ketone
    B
  12. Which of the following amino acids contain a hydrophobic side chain

    Leucine
    Arginine
    Glutamine
    Glutamic acid
    Aspartic acid
    A
  13. Which of the following small molecules do not form biopolymers

    Amino acids
    Sugars
    Fatty acids
    Nucleotides
    C and D
    C
  14. Choose the amino acid that can function as a neurotransmitter

    Glutamic acid
    Alanine
    Tyrosine
    Lysine
    Cysteine
    A
  15. Which of the following is not characteristic of an autopoietic system?

    A)  Autonomous
    B) Self-organizing
    C) Self-maintaining
    D) Intelligent
    E)  B and D
    D
  16. Which of the following is not a core principle of systems biology?


    A) Emergence
    B) Robustness
    C) Redundancy
    D) Modularity
    E) Limit of resolution
    E
  17. The field of study associated with the investigation of gene expression patterns is called:

    A) Proteomics
    B) Bioinformatics
    C) Genomics
    D) Functional genomics
    E) Synomics
    D
  18. Which of the following is not an example of a macromolecule?

    A) Nucleic acid
    B) Protein
    C) Polysaccharide
    D) Enzyme
    E) Amino acid
    E
  19. Which of the following is not considered a class of small biomolecule?

    A) Amino acid
    B) Sugar
    C) Nucleic Acid
    D) Fatty acid
    E) Nucleotide
    C
  20. The majority of Earth’s species belong to which of the following classifications

    Eukaryotes
    Prokaryotes
    Viruses
    Mammals
    Archea
    B
  21. The conversion of earths atmosphere from anerobic to aerobic was due to the development of _________________ by cyanobacteria

    Photosynthesis
    Metabolism
    Chemosynthesis
    Oxidation of iron
    Fixation of nitrogen as cyanide
    A
  22. The largest mass extinction also known as the great dying was called the 

    Cenezoic extinction
    Permian extinction
    Mesozoic event
    Great ice age
    The great plague
    B
  23. During exocytosis membrane-bound vesicles migrate from the Golgi apparatus to the __________.

    A) Lysosome
    B) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    C) Cell wall
    D) Plasma membrane
    E) More than one answer is correct
    D
  24. Structural features that make phospholipids suited for their biological role are:

    A)  A hydrophilic head group 
    B)  Branched carbon chains
    C)  A hydrophobic group
    D)  A and C are correct
    E)   None of the above are true
    D
  25. Which of the following types of molecules is not hydrophilic

    Sodium chloride
    Glucose
    Amino acids
    Fats
    A and B
    D
  26.  The basic structure of biological membranes is provided by what class of compounds?

    A) Proteins
    B) Lipids
    C) Carbohydrates
    D) Steroids
    E) Peptidoglycans
    B
  27. Which of the following statements is not true of the endoplasmic reticulum?

    A) It often constitutes more than half of the cell’s total membrane
    B) It exists in two forms: rough and smooth
    C) Rough ER is responsible for protein synthesis
    D) Smooth ER is responsible for lipid synthesis
    E) Rough ER ribosomes are responsible for biotransformation.
    E
  28. 12) Which of the following statements is not true of the Golgi apparatus?

    A) The analogous plant structure is referred to as a dictyosome
    B) It has two faces
    C) The cisterna or forming face usually projects toward the ER
    D) It is involved in the packaging and secretion of cell products
    E) It is usually located near the plasma membrane
    E
  29. Acid hydrolases are found in ___________.

    A) Ribosomes
    B) Lysosomes
    C) Golgi Apparatus
    D) Dictyosomes
    E) Smooth ER
    B
  30. Biological machines are derived from which class of compounds

    Fats
    Proteins
    Carbohydrates
    Ribosomes
    B and C
    B
  31. Which of the following organelles is involved in aerobic metabolism?

    A) Mitochondria
    B) Peroxisomes
    C) Glyoxysomes
    D) Ribosomes
    E) Lysosomes
    A
  32.  Respiratory assemblies are responsible for the synthesis of ___________.

    A) ATP
    B) NADH
    C) GTP
    D) Hydrogen peroxide
    E) ADP
    A
  33. Which of the following statements is not true of the mitochondrial matrix?

    A) It contains enzymes responsible for nucleotide metabolism
    B)  It contains circular DNA molecules
    C) It contains all of the necessary compounds for protein synthesis
    D) It has a gel-like consistency
    E) It has a high concentration of enzymes and ions
    A
  34. The excluded volume of a cell varies between  _____  and  ______%.

    A)  5-10 
    B) 10-20
    C)  20-40
    D)  40-50
    E)  0-5
    C
  35. Plastids are plant structures similar to what organelle found in animals?

    A) Ribosomes
    B) Leucoplasts
    C) Golgi apparatus
    D) Peroixsomes
    E) None of the above is correct
    E
  36. The stroma of plastids is analogous to what structure of mitochondria?

    A) Grana
    B) Matrix
    C) Inner membrane
    D) Outer membrane
    E) Cisternal space
    B
  37. Biotransformation is defined as:

    A) The preparation of water-insoluble substances for excretion
    B)  Oxidation of organic molecules
    C)  Transformation of food molecules to  ATP
    D)  Reactions occuring within a living system
    E)  Conversion of harmless compounds to toxins
    A
  38.  In place of a nucleus a prokaryotic cell has a __________.

    A)  Mesosome
    B)  Nucleoid
    C)  Centrosome
    D)  Nucleosome
    E)  Reticulosome
    B
  39. Which of the following is not a membrane protein?

    A) Channel protein
    B) Carrier protein
    C) Receptors
    D) Integral proteins
    E) Motor proteins
    E
  40. Examples of eukaryotic signal molecules are:

    A) Neurotransmitters
    B) Hormones
    C) Cytokines
    D) Both A and B are correct
    E) All of the above are correct
    E
  41. Which of the following is not a phase of  the information processing mechanism?

    A) Reception
    B) Transduction
    C) Response
    D) Transformation
    E) Both A and C are correct
    D
  42. 34) Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?

    A) Plasma membrane
    B) Endoplasmic reticulum
    C) Golgi apparatus
    D) Lysosomes
    E) Ribosomes
    E
  43. The carbohydrate coat of a cell is called the:

    A) Extracellular matrix
    B) Glycocalyx
    C) Cell cortex
    D) Fibroblast
    E) Both A and C are correct
    B
  44. The perinuclear space is:

    A) The space between the nucleus and the cytoplasm
    B) The space between the membranes of the nuclear envelope
    C) The space between the nucleus and the nucleous
    D) The space between DNA and histones
    E) Both A and B are correct
    B
  45. Which of the following organelles are involved in autophagy?

    A) Mitochondria
    B) Lysosomes
    C) Chloroplasts
    D) Golgi apparatus
    E) Both B and C are correct
    B
  46. Which of the following molecules is not an example of a type of eukaryotic signal molecule
    type?

    Neurotransmitters
    Hormones
    Cytokinins
    Endotoxins
    A and B
    D
  47. Of the 100 approximately trillion free living cells in the human body how many are actually human cells?

    All of them
    50 Trillion
    90 Trillion
    10 Trillion
    80 Trillion
    D
  48. Analysis of the RNA of prokaryotes reveals that there are ______ distinct types of
    prokaryotes.
    One
    Two
    Three
    Four
    Five
    B
  49. Which of the following are microbiota

    Bacteria
    Fungi
    Archea
    A and B
    A, B and C
    E
  50. The endocytotic cycle is

    A means of remodeling plasma membrane
    A form a signal transduction
    Cycling of sodium and potassium ions through the cell membrane
    Continuous recycling of membrane through endocytosis and exocytosis
    A and D
    A
  51. A hydrogen bond is best defined as:

    A) A strong chemical bond between hydrogen and another element
    B) A weak chemical bond between hydrogen and another element
    C)  A relatively strong electrostatic bond between hydrogen and oxygen or nitrogen
    D)  A weak electrostatic bond between hydrogen and oxygen or nitrogen
    E)  A bond between two hydrogens
    C
  52. Which of the following compounds is capable of hydrogen bonding with like molecules?

    A) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
    B) CH3CH2OCH2CH3
    C) CH3NH2
    D) HOCH2CH2OH
    E)  Both C and D are correct
    E
  53. Which of the following is not a type of van der Waals force?

    A) Dipole-dipole interactions
    B) Dipole-induced dipole interactions
    C)  Induced dipole – induced dipole interactions
    D)  Chemical bonds
    E)  Hydrogen bonds
    D
  54. Which of the following is not an example of noncovalent interactions between molecules?

    A) Salt bridges
    B) Hydrogen bonds
    C) Hydrophobic interactions
    D) Ionic bonds
    E) Chemical bonds
    E
  55. Which  of the following factors is responsible for the fact that water is a liquid at room temperature?

    A) Covalent O-H bonds
    B) Ionic bonds
    C) Hydrogen bonds
    D) Hydrophobic bonding between water molecules
    E)  The molecular weight of water
    C
  56. Which of the following properties of water promotes the relatively constant climate of earth?

    A) High heat of fusion
    B) High surface tension
    C) High heat of vaporization
    D) High heat capacity
    E) A, C, and D are all important
    E
  57. Which of the following compounds is amphipathic?

    A) H2O
    B) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
    C) HOOCCOOH
    D) CH3CH2CH2CH2COOH
    E) Both A and D are correct
    D
  58. Which of the following statements is true of weak acids dissolved in water?

    A) They are completely ionized in water
    B) They are totally unionized in water
    C) They are partially ionized in water
    D) The dissociation constant is a function of pH
    E) The dissociation constant is a function of solute concentration
    C
  59. What is the pH of a solution where the concentration of hydrogen ions is 2 x 10-5 molar?

    A) 5
    B) 2.5
    C) 2
    D) 4.7
    E) 5.3
    D
  60. Which of the following would not form a suitable buffer?

    A) Acetic acid/ acetate
    B) Carbonic acid/ bicarbonate
    C) Bicarbonate/ carbonate
    D) Hydrochloric acid/ chloride
    E) Phosphoric acid/ dihydrogen phosphate
    D
  61. The sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer is 0.1 molar in sodium acetate and 0.5 molar
     in acetic acid. What is the concentration of the buffer?


    A) 0.1 molar
    B) 0.5 molar
    C) 0.6 molar
    D) 0.4 molar
    E) Either A or B depending on whether acid or base is being added to the buffer.
    C
  62. The pH of a solution that is 0.25 molar in acetic acid and 0.1 molar in sodium acetate is 4.36. What is the pKa of acetic acid?

    A) 4.36
    B) 4.76
    C) 7.76
    D) 3.76
    E) 5.76
    B
  63. The most important buffer in blood is __________.

    A) Carbonate/bicarbonate buffer
    B) Protein buffer
    C) Phosphate buffer
    D) Lactate buffer
    E) Tartrate buffer
    A
  64. When an individual breathes very rapidly, large amounts of carbon dioxide are exhaled. What effect does this have on blood pH?

    A) Acidosis
    B) Alkalosis
    C)No change
    D) First acidosis then rebounding alkalosis
    E) First alkalosis then rebounding acidosos
    B
  65. Salt bridges in proteins are an example of  _________.

    A) Hydrogen bonds
    B) Ionic interactions
    C) Hydrophobic interactions
    D) van der  Waals forces
    E) London dispersion forces
    B
  66. What is the osmorlarity of a solution that is  0.25 molar in trisodium phosphate?

    A) 0.25 osmolar
    B) 0.5 osmolar
    C) 0.75 osmolar
    D) 1.0 osmolar
    E) None of the above are correct
    D
  67. Red blood cells are isotonic to a solution that is 0.9% sodium chloride. These same cells are _______________ to a solution that is 0.9% sodium sulfate.

    A) Isotonic
    B) Hypertonic
    C) Hypotonic
    D) Tonic
    E) Nontonic
    C
  68. Which of the following molecules would have a dipole moment?

    A) CCl4
    B) CH3CH3
    C) H2
    D) CHCl3
    E) I2
    D
  69. Which of the following molecules would form a micelle?

    A) NaCl
    B) CH3COOH
    C) CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
    D) H3PO4
    E) CH3(CH2)10COO-  Na +
    E
  70. Which of the following molecules are weak acids?

    A) HCl
    B)  CO3-2
    C)  HNO3
    D) HCO3-
    E) Both B and D
    D
  71. Which of the following ions would have the largest hydration sphere?

    A) Li+
    B) Na+
    C) K+
    D) Cs+
    E) All would have the same size hydration sphere
    A
  72.  Hydration is best defined as

    A)  Covalent interaction between water and a solute
    B)  Noncovalent interaction between water and a solute
    C)  Salt formation in water
    D)  Ionization of a base to produce hydroxide ions
    E)  Both C and D are correct
    B
  73. The noncovalent interaction between an amide and an alcohol would be which of the following?

    A) Salt bridges
    B) Hydrophobic
    C) Hydrogen bonding
    D) Both A and C are correct
    E)  All of the above are true
    C
  74. Crenation would result when cells are placed in a ___________ solution.

    A) Hypertonic 
    B) Hypotonic 
    C) Isotonic 
    D) Nontonic 
    E) Nonaqueous solvent
    A
  75. Which of the following is not an important noncovalent interaction of living organisms

    Ionic interactions
    Van der Waals interactions
    Hydrogen bonds
    Carbon hydrogen bonds
    All are important
    D
  76. Which of the following molecules would have unusually high heat capacities?

    A) Ammonia
    B) Methane
    C) Methyl alcohol
    D) Benzene
    E) Both A and C are correct
    E
  77. The hybridization of the water molecule is:

    A) Sp3
    B) Sp2
    C) Sp
    D) Unhybridized
    E) Planar
    A
  78. The strongest type of non covalent force is 

    Dipole-Dipole
    Dipole-Induced Dipole
    Induced Dipole – Induced Dipole
    London dispersion forces
    Hydrogen bonds
    E
  79. Which of the following ions would have the strongest tendency to form an ion pair with carboxylate groups the surface of a protein?

    A) Lithium
    B) Sodium
    C) Potassium
    D) All have the same tendency
    E) These ions do not associate with proteins
    C
  80. Which of the following species would form a buffer with HPO4-2?

    A) H3PO4
    B) H2PO4-1
    C) CO3-2
    D) All would form buffers with HPO4-2
    E) Both A and B
    B
  81. Water can form how many hydrogen bonds

    One
    Two
    Three
    Four
    Five
    D
  82. Which of the following solutions will be isotonic with 3M sucrose?

    A)  3M NaCl
    B) 1 M Sodium sulfate
    C) 1.5 M Proline
    D) 2 M Sodium chloride
    E)  1 M Magnesium sulfate
    B
  83. Which of the following molecules is hydrophobic?

    A) Sodium chloride
    B) Ethyl alcohol
    C) Hexane
    D) Sucrose
    E) Ammonia
    C
  84.  In biological systems buffers usually contain an excess of  __________.

    A) Weak base
    B) Weak acid
    C) The two components of the buffer are present in equal amounts
    D) It would depend on the system
    E) None are correct
    A
  85.  The tendency of nonpolar molecules to aggregate in a water medium is called ________.

    A) Crenation
    B) Hydrophobic effect
    C) Hydrophillic effect
    D) Micellular effect
    E) Amphiatic
    B
  86.  The high heat of fusion of water is due to  its _______________.

    A) Hydrogen bonding
    B) High surface tension
    C) High heat of vaporization
    D) High heat capacity
    E) A, C, and D are all important
    A
  87. Which of the following is not a role of water in the body

    Nutrient absorption
    Nutrient transport
    Waste product excretion
    Temperature regulation
    All are roles of water
    E
  88. Which of the following species can form a buffer system

    Hydrochloric acid / Acetic acid
    Acetic acid / Sodium chloride
    Acetic acid / Ammonium chloride
    Acetic acid/ Sodium acetate
    Phosphoric acid / Sodium phosphate
    D
  89. Which of the following are unusual properties of water that suit it to be the matrix
    of life

    Tetrahedral hybridization
    Presence of oxygen
    Thermal properties
    Solvent characteristics
    C and D
    E
  90. What percentage of the worlds water is drinkable

    100%
    60%
    3%
    1%
    97%
    C
  91. The immediate effect of deforestation is

    Drought
    Erosion
    Formation of grasslands
    Formation of deserts
    Increase in the water table
    B
  92. Which of the following is not an effect of hydrogen bonding on the 
    physical properties of water

    Increased boiling point
    Increased heat of fusion
    Increased melting point
    Increased heat of vaporization
    All are effects of hydrogen bonding
    E
  93. The course of chemical reactions is determined by three factors. These are enthalpy, entropy and 

    A) Heat of reaction
    B) Free energy
    C) States of matter
    D) Bond energy
    E) Both A and B are correct
    B
  94. Which of the following statements is true of an open system

    A) There is an exchange of energy only with the surroundings
    B) There is an exchange of matter only with the surroundings
    C) There is an exchange of both matter and energy with the surroundings
    D)  In an open system either matter or energy, but not both may be exchanged with the surroundings
    E) Energy flows only into the system: matter flows out of the system.
    C
  95. Which of the following statements is true of a closed system?

    A) There is an exchange of energy only with the surroundings
    B) There is an exchange of matter only with the surroundings
    C) There is an exchange of both matter and energy with the surroundings
    D)  In an closed system either matter or energy, but not both may be exchanged with the surroundings
    E) Energy flows only into the system: matter flows out of the system.
    A
  96. Which of the following thermodynamic properties is a state function?

    A) Work
    B) Heat
    C) Enthalpy
    D) Entropy
    E) Both C and D are correct
    E
  97. The first law of thermodynamics is described by which of the following equations?

    A) ΔE = Q+W
    B) ΔQ = E-W
    C) ΔW = Q-W
    D) Both B and C are correct
    E) All of the above are correct.
    A
  98. Which of the following statements is not true of a spontaneous process?

    A) The enthalpy value is negative
    B) The entropy value is negative
    C) The free energy value is positive
    D) The work value is negative
    E) The enthalpy value is positive
    B
  99. Which of the following is not a standard condition for standard free energy?

    A) 25 0C
    B) 1 Atm pressure
    C) Concentration of reactants = 1 molar
    D) Concentration of products = 1 molar
    E) pH = 7
    E
  100. The ionization constant of acetic acid is 1x10-5. What is ΔGo for the reaction?

    A) –6500 cal/mol
    B) 3250 cal/mol
    C) 6500 cal/mol
    D) 6000 cal/mol
    E) 1624 cal/mol
    C
  101. Under standard conditions is the ionization of a carboxylic acid spontaneous or not? A typical carboxylic acid has a pKa of 4.

    A) It is spontaneous
    B) It is not spontaneous
    C)  Not enough information is provided
    B
  102. When water and hydrophobic molecules are mixed all of the following are true except:

    A) The hydrophobic molecules aggregate
    B) The free energy of dissolving molecules is unfavorable
    C) -TΔS becomes negative
    D) Water’s hydrogen-bonded interactions are disrupted
    E) All of the above are true.
    E
  103. The oxidation of food molecules to form CO2 and H2O is a(n) _______ process.

    A) Exergonic
    B) Endergonic
    C) Isothermic
    D) Lithotropic
    E) Spontaneous
    A
  104. The law of the conservation of energy states that

    A) The total energy of the universe is constant
    B) Entropy of a system increases
    C) There are three laws of thermodynamics
    D) The work that can be performed by a system is a constant
    E) The energy of a system’s surroundings is constant
    A
  105. Which of the following is a low quality energy source

    Electromagnetic radiation
    Heat
    Electrical Energy
    Chemical Energy
    B and C
    B
  106. Which of the following statements regarding free energy changes is true?

    A) At equilibrium ΔG0 = O
    B) For the reaction to be spontaneous ΔGo must be positive
    C) Free energy is a state function
    D) Both A and C are true
    E) All of the above are true
    D
  107. Which of the following compounds would liberate the most free energy on hydrolysis?

    A) ATP
    B) Phosphoenolpyruvate
    C) PPi
    D) ADP
    E) GTP
    B
  108. Which of the following thermodynamic properties is the most useful criterion of spontaneity?

    A)  Entropy
    B) Free energy
    C) Standard free energy
    D) Enthalpy
    E) Change in temperature
    B
  109.  For a reaction to be spontaneous which of the following statements must be true?

    ΔSuniv= O
    ΔSuniv = positive
    ΔSiniv = negative
    A or B
    Entropy has no effect on the spontaneity of a process
    B
  110.  Which of the following processes are driven by the hydrolysis of ATP?

    A) Biosynthesis of biomolecules
    B) Active transport of substances across membranes
    C) Mechanical work such as muscle contraction
    D) Both A and B are correct
    E)  All of the above are correct
    E
  111. The study of reaction rates is called ___________.
    A) Reactions
    B) Thermodynamics
    C) Kinetics
    D) Mechanics
    E) Entropics
    C
  112. Which of the following is described by the first law of thermodynamics

    Enthalpy
    Entropy
    Free energy
    A and B
    A, B and C
    A
  113. Which of the following is described by the second law of thermodynamics

    Enthalpy
    Entropy
    Free energy
    A and B
    A, B and C
    B
  114. What type of bond is being cleaved during the conversion of ATP to ADP?

    A) Ester
    B) Ether
    C) Hydrogen
    D) Anhydride
    E) Amide
    D
  115. The tendency of ATP to undergo hydrolysis is called __________.

    A) Free energy of hydrolysis
    B) Cleavage rate
    C) Phosphoryl group transfer potential
    D) High energy bond potential
    E) None of the above is correct
    C
  116.  The products of the hydrolysis of ATP are more stable than ATP itself. This circumstance is due to __________.

    A) pH effects
    B) Relief of charge-charge repulsions
    C) Resonance stabilization of the products
    D) Relief of steric strain
    E) Both B and C are correct
    E
  117.  A living organism is what type of thermodynamic system?

    A) Closed
    B) Open
    C) A system at equilibrium
    D) A system with negative entropy
    E) Both C and D are correct
    B
  118. Which of the following thermodynamic properties is pathway dependent?
    A) Free energy
    B) Entropy
    C) Enthalpy
    D) Work
    E) Both B and C are correct
    D
  119. The rate of a reaction can be determined from which of the following?

    A) Free energy
    B) Enthalpy
    C) Entropy
    D) All of the above are correct
    E) None of the above are correct.
    E
  120.  Systems far from equilibrium are referred to as _________ systems.

    A) Spontaneous
    B) Dissipative
    C) Critical
    D) Entropic
    E) Heterotropic
    B
  121. An organism at equilbrium is said to be __________.

    A) At rest
    B) Dissipative
    C) Organized
    D) Dead
    E) Dormant
    D
  122. The following statement is made by which law of thermodynamics?
    “At absolute zero the disorder of a perfect crystal approaches zero”.

    First Law
    Second Law
    Third Law
    A and B
    All make this statement
    C
  123. A measure of  a system’s internal energy is

    Enthalpy
    Entropy
    Free energy
    Work
    Heat
    A
  124. In living organisms where does the increase in entropy takes place?

    Cell
    Surroundings
    Either A or B
    Entropy does not change
    Entropy does not apply to living things
    B
  125.  How many molecules of oxygen are required to completely oxidize one mole of stearic acid  ( C17H35COOH)?

    A) 18
    B) 9
    C) 34
    D) 45
    E) 53
    E
  126. Given the following ΔH values calculate the ΔH for the complete combustion of stearic acid.

    ΔH (kal/mol)                   Compound

    -211.4                   C17H35COOΗ

    0 Oxygen

    -94 Carbon dioxide

    -68.4 Water


    A) –49 kal
    B) –2096.2 kal
    C) –2711.8 kal
    D) 0 kal
    E) 3071.8 kal
    C
  127. Magnesium ion (Mg++) forms complexes with ATP. What would happen to the stability of ATP if the magnesium was removed?

    A) There would be no change in stability
    B) The ATP would be more stable
    C) The ATP would be less stable
    D) The effect on stability would depend on specific conditions
    E) Either A or B is correct
    C
  128. Choose the molecule with the highest phosphate transfer potential.

    Phosphoenolpyruvate
    ATP
    PPi
    Glucose-1-phosphate
    Carbamoyl phosphate
    A
  129. Biogeochemical cycles are pathways driven by which of the following?

    Nuclear
    Solar
    Geothermal energy
    Tectonic movements
    B and C
    E
  130. Which of the following moves through a system in a biogeochemical cycle?

    Chemical compounds
    Heat
    Light
    Energy
    All of the above
    E
  131. In classical thermodynamics which of the following is true?

    All systems are at or near equilibrium
    All materials are at low concentration
    The system is far from equilibrium
    The systems are always open
    A and B
    E
  132. A Benard cell is an example of

    A classical thermodynamic system
    A system at equilibrium
    A dissipative system
    A system at uniform temperature
    B and C
    C
  133. The evolution of living organisms is driven by

    Size of the energy gradient to be dissipated
    First law of thermodynamics
    Second law of thermodynamics
    Attainment of equilibrium
    A and C
    E
  134.  A process is spontaneous when

    ΔG0 = 0
    ΔG0 > 0
    ΔG0 < 0
    Energy is absorbed
    Entropy is negative
    C
  135. Which of the following is a function of proteins?

    A) Defense
    B) Metabolic regulation
    C) Transport
    D) Catalysis
    E) All of the above are correct
    E
  136.  The term protein refers to amino acid polymers with greater than ________amino acids.
    50
  137. Which of the following is a nonstandard amino acid?

    A) Glycine
    B) Cysteine
    C) 5-Hydroxyproline
    D) Valine
    E) Alanine
    C
  138. Which of the following is a heterocyclic amino acid?

    A) Alanine
    B) Valine
    C) Proline
    D) Tyrosine
    E) Cystine
    C
  139. Which of the following is not a class of amino acid?

    A) Nonpolar and neutral
    B) Polar and neutral
    C) Acidic
    D) Basic
    E) Asymmetric
    E
  140. Which of the following amino acids lacks a center of asymmetry?

    A) Alanine
    B) Glycine
    C) Valine
    D) Isoleucine
    E) Aspartic acid
    B
  141.  Given the following pKa’s the isoelectric point of serine is ________.
    pK1 = 2.21      pK2 = 9.15

    A) 2.21
    B) 5.68
    C) 9.15
    D) 6.62
    E)11.36
    B
  142. The amino acid sequence of a polypeptide is referred to as ________structure.

    A) Primary
    B) Secondary
    C) Tertiary
    D) Quaternary
    E) Peptide
    A
  143. The overall three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide is referred to as _________ structure.

    A) Primary
    B) Secondary
    C) Tertiary
    D) Quaternary
    E) Peptide
    C
  144. Invariant amino acids in a protein are presumed:

    A) To be unimportant in the structure and function of the protein
    B) To be essential to the structure and function of the protein
    C) Always to occur at the beginning of the amino acid sequence of an enzyme
    D) Always to occur at the end of the amino acid sequence of an enzyme
    E) To be part of the prosthetic group.
    B
  145. β-pleated sheets are associated with what level of protein structure?

    A) Primary
    B) Secondary
    C) Tertiary
    D) Quaternary
    E) Superquaternary
    B
  146. Which of the following amino acids would foster an α-helix?

    A) Glycine
    B) Alanine
    C) Proline
    D) Tyrosine
    E) Serine
    B
  147.  The Greek key is associated with which of the following?

    A) α-helix
    B) Parallel β-pleated sheets
    C) Antiparallel  β-pleated sheets
    D) Disulfide bridges
    E) Salt bridges
    C
  148. Which of the following interactions do not stabilize tertiary structure?

    A) Hydrophobic interactions
    B) Electrostatic interactions
    C) Hydrogen bonds
    D) Covalent bonds
    E) None of the above
    E
  149. Detergents denature proteins by disrupting which of the following?

    A) Hydrogen bonds
    B) Disulfide bridges
    C) Hydrophobic interactions
    D) Salt bridges
    E) Both A and B are correct
    C
  150.  Fibrous proteins typically have large amounts of: 
    A) α-Helix
    B) β-Pleated sheets
    C) Disulfide bridges
    D) Salt bridges
    E) Both A and B are correct
    E
  151. The identity and arrangement of amino acids on the surface of a globular protein are important because they may:

    A) Interact to form specific binding cavities
    B) Stabilize the tertiary structure of the protein
    C) Bind regulatory molecules
    D) Both A and C are correct
    E) All of the above are correct
    E
  152. Which of the following statements regarding cooperative binding is true?

    A) Two or more proteins aid the binding of a ligand.
    B) The binding of one ligand aids the binding of a second ligand
    C) The folding of part of a protein aids in the folding of the remainder of the protein
    D) All proteins engage in cooperative binding
    E) The binding of a cofactor to a protein aids in the binding of a ligand.
    B
  153. Which of the following statements is true of the Bohr effect?

    A) Oxygen is delivered to cells in proportion to their needs
    B) Binding of protons to hemoglobin molecules facilitates the binding of oxygen
    C) Metabolic waste products bond to oxyhemoglobin
    D) A and B are both true
    E) All of the above are true
    A
  154. A polypeptide has a high pI value. Which of the following amino acids are likely to be present?

    A) Glycine
    B) Serine
    C) Valine
    D) Aspartic acid
    E) Arginine
    E
  155.  Structural proteins “freeze” large amounts of water. Which of the following interactions is not likely to be involved in the binding of water?

    A) Salt bridges
    B) Hydrogen bonding
    C) Hydrophilic interactions
    D) Disulfide bridges
    E) Both C and D are correct.
    D
  156.  Why is the peptide bond stronger than the ester bond?

    A) Greater electronegativity of nitrogen
    B) Greater electronegativity of oxygen
    C) Resonance stabilization of the amide bond
    D) Increased basicity of nitrogen
    E) Size of the nitrogen atom compared to the oxygen atom
    C
  157. Which of the following amino acids would be classified as a nonstandard amino acid

    Tyrosine
    Lysine
    Cystine
    Glycine
    Arginine
    C
  158. Given that pK1 = 2.35 and pK2 = 9.69 for alanine. What is its isoelectric point

    9.69
    2.34
    6.02
    12.03
    7.00
    C
  159. When not at the terminal of a protein which of the following amino acids cannot contribute to the PI of a protein?

    Arginine
    Lysine
    Cysteine
    Tyrosine
    Alanine
    E
  160. When part of a polypeptide chain other than the N-terminus, which of the following amino acids can form a aldimines?

    Glycine
    Alanine
    Proline
    Histidine
    Lysine
    E
  161. Collagen is classified as which of the following types of protein?

    Enzyme
    Structural
    Movement
    Defense
    Regulatory
    B
  162. A prosthetic group is a :

    A) Repair enzyme
    B) Group other than an amino acid that is part of a protein
    C) Group that generates the native form of a protein
    D) Disulfide link
    E) Group that reduces enzyme activity
    B
  163. The major component of the dry weight of cells is _______.

    A) Carbohydrate
    B) Protein
    C) Fats
    D) Minerals
    E) The major component will vary from organism to organism
    B
  164. The total number of proteins that can be produced from any 10 amino acids is?

    A) 10^20
    B) 20^10
    C) 100
    D) 200
    E) 10^10
    B
  165. Schiff bases are also referred to as:

    A) Aldimines
    B) Amines
    C) Carbinolamines
    D) Amino acids
    E) Both A and C are correct
    A
  166. Which of the following amino acids would be found in a β-turn?

    A) Proline
    B) Alanine
    C) Phenylalanine
    D) Lysine
    E) Tyrosine
    A
  167. Which of the following is not a function of IUPs?

    A) Signal transduction
    B) Transcription
    C) Translation
    D) Cell proliferation
    E) Oxygen transport
    E
  168. The source of energy for motor proteins in addition to ATP is:

    A) NAD+
    B) GTP
    C) PEP
    D) ADP
    E) PPi
    B
  169. Keratin is classified as which of the following types of protein?

    Enzyme
    Structural
    Movement
    Defense
    Regulatory
    B
  170.  In which of the following mechanical properties does spider silk exceed all synthetic fibers?

    A) Toughness
    B) Tensile strength
    C) Elasticity
    D) Resilience
    E) All of the above
    E
  171. Which of the following is a hydrophobic amino acid?

    A) Glycine
    B) Serine
    C) Lysine
    D) Phenylalanine
    E) Both C and D are hydrophobic
    E
  172. A conjugated protein consists of a simple protein combined with a _________.

    A) Apoprotein
    B) Holoprotein
    C) Prosthetic group
    D) Answers B and C are correct
    E) All of the above are correct
    C
  173. Which of  the following amino acids is not one of the twenty standard amino acids?

    Glycine
    Phenylalanine
    Tyrosine
    Cystine
    Arginine
    D
  174. How many standard amino acids are there?


    5
    17
    20
    12
    32
    C
  175. How many octapeptides  containing only two amino acids are possible?

    8
    148
    16
    256
    35
    D
  176. Amino acid polymers with a molecular weight between several thousand and several million Daltons are called

    Dipeptides
    Polypeptides
    Proteins
    Peptides
    None of the above
    C
  177.  Which of the following is not a function of proteins?

    Structural materials
    Catalyst
    Metabolic regulation
    Transport
    All of the above are functions of proteins
    E
  178. Which of the following is a polar amino acid?

    Phenylalanine
    Tyrosine
    Methionine
    Tryptophan
    Proline
    B
  179. The minimum amount of energy required to bring about a chemical reaction is called:
    Activation energy
  180. In contrast to inorganic catalysts, enzymes have an intricately shaped surface called the __________.
    Active site

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