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What bones are formed in the embryo as cartilage? How do they become bone?
Bone replaces cartilage via endochondral ossification
What bones are formed from membranous sheaths? How do they become bone?
Main cell type of cartilage
True / False:
Cartilage is a vascularized tissue?
What specifically give cartilage its strength yet pliability?
Glycosaminoglycans (GAG) & Type II Collagen in the ECM
Types of cartilage
Where is Hyaline Cartilage found?
Articular ends of long bones
Respiratory tract (trachea)
Ventral ends of ribs
Temporary skeleton for endochondral bone development of long bones
What type of cartilage appears glassy and bluish in live tissue?
Most abundant cartilage type?
Composition of Hyaline Cartilage
Has a perichondrium (except articular cartilage of long bone)
- Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
- - Type II collagen (Type IX / Type XI less abundant)
- - GAGs & multiadhesive glycoproteins
- - Proteoglycans (aggrecan molecules)
Chondroitin sulfate & Keratin sulfate chains (each GAGs) attach to a core protein, which then attach via linker proteins to hyaluronine to make up aggrecan (a proteoglycan)
What is significant about ECM of Hyaline Cartilage? Why?
Matrix is highly hydrated (60-80% of net weight is intercellular water)
Much of this water is tightly bound to aggrecan-hyaluronan aggregates (imparts resilience)
Some of the water is bound loosely (allows diffusion / transfer of metabolites thru ECM)
Function and location of isogenous groups
Mitotic division of cells in ECM of hyaline cartilage.
Isogenous groups produce the surrounding ECM material
How does the ECM stain in hyaline cartilage? Why?
Matrix is basophilic due to sulfated proteoglycans
How does the perichondrium stain in hyaline cartilage? Why?
Perichondrium is eosinophilic (acidophilic) due to type I collagen
What cell types are found in hyaline cartilage?
Fibroblasts (outer perichondrium)
Formative chondrocytes (inner perichondrium)
Interstitial vs. Appositional growth in hyaline cartilage
- Appositional growth occurs in growing cartilage (adjacent to perichondrium)
- - Differentiation of chondroblasts from the perichondrium into elliptical chondrocytes
- Interstitial growth occurs deep within cartilage matrix
- - mitotic division of rounded chondrocytes
Degeneration of cartilage
Chondrocytes hypertrophy and die -> matrix calcifies
Normal process of endochondral bone formation (increases w/ age)
Cartilage bone model of the fetus is _________
Location of elastic cartilage
External ear (auricle & external auditory meatus)
Eustacian (auditory) tube
Cartilage of the larynx
Composition of elastic cartilage
Perichondrium is present
ECM contains type II collagen and elastic fibers
What stain must be used to differentiate elastic cartilage from hyaline cartilage?
Orcein / resorcein-fuchsin
Location of fibrocartilage
Intervertebral discs (annulus fibrosa)
Meniscus of the knee
Insertions of tendons and ligaments on the epiphyseal hyaline cartilage
What type of cartilage can be viewed as a hybrid between dense CT and cartilage?
Composition of fibrocartilage
Numerous type I collagen fibers (in addition to type II)
What is significant about the appearance of fibrocartilage?
Chondrocytes in lacunae are arranged in long rows
Type I collagen fibers form parallel bundles in directions of stress
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