Abdomen Board Review LABS

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dorkfork
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290838
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Abdomen Board Review LABS
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2014-12-06 23:29:02
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  1. Most specific lab test for liver disease:
    ALT
  2. ALT is found in what organs?
    • Liver
    • Heart
    • Muscles
    • Kidney
  3. Increased levels of ALT is associated with what pathology?
    • Hepatocellular disease/ liver dysfunction
    • Cirrhosis
    • Metastasis to the liver
    • Obstructive jaundice
    • Infection/ toxic hepatitis
    • Pancreatitis
    • Liver congestion
    • Hepatic injury
  4. 2 primary lab tests used to evaluate the liver:
    • ALT
    • AST
  5. Enzyme found in liver and present in tissues with high metabolic activity:
    AST
  6. Highest to lowest concentration of AST in organs
    Heart, liver, muscle, kidneys, brain, pancreas, spleen, lungs
  7. ALP is an enzyme primarily produced in:
    Liver and bone
  8. ALP is secrete via the:
    Bile ducts
  9. ALP elevation is seen with:
    • Biliary obstruction
    • Hepatocellular disease/ impaired liver function
    • Abscess
    • Cirrhosis
  10. With liver disease, AST elevation is associated with:
    • Active cirrhosis
    • Hepatitis
    • Infectious mono w/hepatitis
    • Hepatic necrosis
  11. Elevation of BR is seen with:
    • Viral hepatitis
    • Jaundice
    • Cirrhosis
    • Mono
    • Drug reactions
  12. Serum albumin plays an important role in the _____ system.
    Immune system
  13. _____ levels of serum albumin correlates to decreased liver synthesis.
    Decreased
  14. Decreased serum albumin occurs with:
    • Diffuse liver disease
    • Alcoholism
    • Malabsorption syndromes
  15. Protein produced by the liver and used in clotting process:
    Pro-time
  16. Production of pro-time depends on:
    Adequate vitamin K intake and absorption
  17. Pro-time concentration is _____ with diffuse liver disease.
    Decreased
  18. Glycoprotien produced by fetal liver that is not present in healthy adults
    AFP
  19. Increased AFP is associated with:
    HCC and metastasis
  20. Direct bilirubin is also known as
    Conjugated bilirubin
  21. Increased _____ bilirubin is associated with stone/neoplasm obstructing bile ducts.
    Direct/ conjucated
  22. 90% of bilirubin is _____ where as only 10% is _____.
    • 90%- indirect
    • 10%- direct
  23. _____ increases with increased levels of direct bilirubin.
    ALP
  24. Obstruction of bile ducts causes what increasein ALP levels?
    4x normal
  25. Lab values associated with acute cholecystitis
    • Increased WBC count
    • Mild increase of BR, ALP, ALT, amylase
  26. Lab values associated with GB sludge
    Increased bilirubin and ALP
  27. Enzyme produced by pancreas and salivary gland that changes sugar into startch.
    Amylase
  28. Urine vs. serum amylase lag time:
    Urine amylase with elevated 6-10 hours after a serum increase
  29. Which elevates first, amylase or lipase?
    Amylase
  30. Which elevation persists longer, amylase or lipase?
    Lipase
  31. Increased lipase/amylase levels are associated with:
    • Pancreatitis
    • Cirrhosis
    • Obstruction of the pancreatic duct
    • Acute cholecystitis
    • CA in the head of the pancreas
  32. Decreased serum amylase is associated with:
    Severe cases of chornic pancreatitis
  33. Lab values associated with acute pancreatitis:
    • Increased serum & urine amylase
    • Increased WBC count
    • Increased serum bilirubin if obstructing duct
  34. Enzyme produced in pancreas that changes fats to fatty acids and glycerol
    Lipase
  35. Labs associated with pancreatic pseudocysts
    • Persistent mild elevation of amylase
    • Increased ALP if obstructed
  36. Labs associated with islet cell tumor:
    Hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia
  37. Serum test to measure nitrogen component in urea; used to measure glomerular function
    BUN
  38. Increased serum BUN levels are due to:
    Rapid protein catabolism or impaired renal function
  39. Increased BUN levels are seen with what pathology:
    Impaired renal function due to:CHF, acute MI, salt and water depletion, shock, CKD, urinary tract obstruction, cancer, burns, glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis
  40. Increased creatinine levels are seen with:
    • Renal dysfunction
    • Urinary tract obstruction
  41. Most specific and sensitive lab test for renal dysfunction
    Creatinine
  42. Serum uric acid increase is associated with:
    • Renal disease and renal failure
    • Prerenal azotemia
    • Alcoholism
    • Downs syndrome
    • Lead poisoning
    • Leukemia
  43. _____ creatinine clearance is associated with impaired renal function, shock, COPD, and CHF.
    Decreased
  44. Alkaline urine is associated with:
    Chronic renal failure
  45. Hematuria is associated with:
    • UTI
    • Urinary tract or renal tumors
    • Urninary stones
    • Pyelonephritis/glomerulonepritis
    • Renal trauma
    • Strenuous exercise
  46. Average urine pH
    ~6.0 (acidic)
  47. Urine bilirubin levels are normally _____.
    Negative
  48. Urine leukocyte esterase (WBC) levels are usually ______.
    Negative
  49. WBC casts in urine indicate:
    Renal parenchymal infection
  50. Gross hematuria
    Irritant within ureter or bladder
  51. Over 99% of circulating thyroid hormones are bound to _____.
    Thyroid-binding globulin
  52. TSH is secreted by
    The pituitary gland
  53. Toxic thyroid nodules autonamously secrete:
    Tand T4
  54. Most patients with adenmoas are _____.
    Euthyroid
  55. PTH regulates long-term _____ levels.
    Calcium
  56. How is PTH secretion regulated?
    Increase or decrease in inonized calcium levels inhibit/stimulate PTH
  57. Abnormal PTH increase is associated with:
    • Primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma)
    • Secondary hyperparathyroidism (severe CKD)
  58. Abnormal PTH decrease is associated with:
    • Hyperthyroidism (Graves)
    • Secondary hypoparathyroidism
  59. Increase in serum calcium levels are seen with:
    • Hyperparathyroidism (primary adenoma or hyperplasia)
    • PTH producing cancerous tumor (bone, lung, breast)
    • Thyroid toxicosis
  60. Lab values associated with hyperparathyroidism
    • Increased serum and urine calcium
    • Increased PTH
  61. PSA values associated with BPH:
    between 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L
  62. PSA values associated with prostate CA:
    greater than 8.0 mg/L
  63. Medulla of the adrenal gland secretes:
    Epinephrine and norepinephrine
  64. Cortex of the adrenal gland secretes:
    Aldosterone, cortisol, and glucocorticoids
  65. Increased serum cortisol is associated with:
    • Cushings
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Stress
    • Obesity
    • Functional adrenal tumors
  66. Decreased serum cortisol is associated with:
    • Addisons disease
    • Liver disease
    • Hypothyroidism
  67. Lab values associated with cushings syndrome:
    Very high urinary 17, increased cortisol and ketosteroid levels
  68. Labs associated with virulising adenoma:
    Increased testosterone
  69. Labs associated with feminizing adenoma?
    Increased estrogen
  70. Labs associated with Conn's syndrome:
    Over secreteion aldosterone
  71. Increased RBC count is associated with:
    • Polycythemia vera
    • Some renal, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases
  72. Decreased RBC count is associated with:
    • Anemia
    • Hodgkin's and non-hodgkins lymphoma
    • Chronic hemorrhage'
    • Leukemia
  73. Increased WBC count is associated with:
    • Bacterial infection
    • Early leukemia
    • Acute hemorrhage
    • Post-splenectomy
  74. Decreased WBC count is associated with:
    • Viral infections
    • Anemia
    • Hypersplenia
  75. Luekocytosis
    Increased WBC count
  76. Leukopenia
    Decreased WBC count
  77. Polycythemia
    Increased RBC count
  78. Anemia
    Decreased RBC count

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