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what do I/O psychologists do?
- improve employee performance/QWL (well-being)
- apply psych to performance in the workplace
what are KSAOs and how is it determined what KSAOs are needed for a given job?
- "Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other characteristics"
- job analysis
what is a job analysis?
process of collecting info about jobs and job requirements
how is a job analysis used?
used to guide hiring and training decisions
what are three common methods used to collect job analysis information?
- 1) job-oriented: focuses on the tasks involved in doing a job (common)
- 2) person-oriented: focuses on the KSAOs needed to do those tasks (common)
- 3) personality-oriented: focuses on specific personality characteristics associated with success in a job (customer service jobs)
what is known about measuring employee characteristics using the selection interview?
- structured interviews are more effective than unstructured interviews
- candidates prefer interviews over tests
what are assessment centers?
- extensive sets of exercises designed to determine an individuals suitability for a particular job
- 2-3 days of exercises
what are the two types of performance criteria used to evaluate job performance?
- theoretical: statement of what we mean by good or poor performance in theory
- actual: specifies what we should measure to determine if the theoretical criterion has been met
What are two different types of performance appraisal methods? describe each
- objective: include counting frequency of particular behaviors or the results of those behaviors. aren't right for all jobs
- subjective: supervisor's judgments about various aspects of an employee's work (graphic: list several criterion related dimensions of job performance and provide a space for the supervisor to rate each employee's performance on each. behavioral: rate on specific behaviors rather than general dimensions of performance)
How does an I/O psychologist conduct a validation study?
research projects designed to determine how well a particular test, interview, or other assessment method predicts an employee's job performance
What are important legal issues regarding recruitment and selection practices?
hiring, firing, promotion processes shouldn't discriminate against anyone on the basis of of characteristics that have nothing to do with job performance
What is the first step in developing a training program?
assess training needs
What are key principles of training?
what is transfer?
teaching knowledge/skills that generalize (transfer) to the workplace
what is feedback?
overlearning involves what?
reaching a higher level of performance without much thinking
what are types of sequencing?
- massed training: less expansive
- distributed training: less time
How are training programs evaluated? (3 levels of criteria)
- 1. training-level
- 2. trainee-level
- 3. performance-level
What are 4 theories of workplace motivation?
- 1. Maslow's
- 2. Alderfer's ERG
- 3. Expectancy theory
- 4. Goal setting theory
What is Maslow's theory of workplace motivation?
hierarchy of needs (motivation-emotion chapter)
What is Alderfer's ERG theory of workplace motivation?
- places human needs into 3 rather than 5 categories
- 1. existence
- 2. relatedness
- 3. growth
What is the expectancy theory of workplace motivation?
employees act in accordance with expected results and how much they value those results
what is the goal setting theory of workplace motivation?
employee's behavior is shaped by their intention to achieve specific goals
What are factors that influence job satisfaction?
- the work itself: complexity/challenge/control
- salary: many feel underpaid
- work-family conflict: many feel conflict between their family and their job. more conflict means less satisfaction
- gender: few factors
- genetics: may be genetically predispositioned to have less job satisfaction
How much does job satisfaction correlate with these various outcomes?
job performance, OCBs, turnover, absenteeism, Aggression and CWBs
- job performance: better with satisfaction
- OCBs: (organizational citizenship behavior) willingness to go above and beyond, is better with satisfaction
- turnover: loss of employees, dissatisfaction when another job can be found
- absenteeism: weak correlation
- aggression and CWBs: dissatisfaction is a cause. the most likely victim is the company itself
what is occupational health psychology?
- studies psych factors that affect health/safety.
- universal precautions: set of safety procedures
what is a repetitive strain injury? how do engineering or human factors psychologists do to help?
- joints become enflamed, sometimes causing permanent damage (i.e. carpal tunnel syndrome)
- wrist pads, work breaks
how does rotating shift work impact health?
messes up circadian rhythms
what are different types of work schedules and their impacts?
- long shifts: greater job satisfaction and better performance, but may cause health problems
- long weeks: health problems
What is safety climate?
provide adequate safety training for employees, conduct thorough and frequent safety inspections, and ensure that supervisors consistently communicate the need for safety
What are different types of work groups and teams?
- autonomous work groups: manage themselves, don't report to anyone
- work team: members' specialized activities are coordinated and interdependent as they work toward a common goal
What are traits of good leaders?
intelligence, extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, trustworthy, team-oriented
What are behaviors of good leaders? explain both
- consideration: shows concern for the welfare of employees, including friendly and supportive behavior that makes the workplace more pleasant
- initiating structure: coordinates employee efforts by assigning tasks and clarifying expectations so that group members know what is required of them to perform well
relationship-motivated leaders vs. task-motivated leaders
- relationship: high on consideration dimension
- task: high on initiating structure dimension
What is the LMX theory of leadership?
- "leader-member exchange"
- leaders tend to supervise in-group and out-group employees in different ways
what is a charismatic leader?
one who inspires followers to embrace a vision of success and to make extraordinary efforts to achieve things they would not have done on their own