what are KSAOs and how is it determined what KSAOs are needed for a given job?
"Knowledge, Skills, Abilities, and Other characteristics"
what is a job analysis?
process of collecting info about jobs and job requirements
how is a job analysis used?
used to guide hiring and training decisions
what are three common methods used to collect job analysis information?
1) job-oriented: focuses on the tasks involved in doing a job (common)
2) person-oriented: focuses on the KSAOs needed to do those tasks (common)
3) personality-oriented: focuses on specific personality characteristics associated with success in a job (customer service jobs)
what is known about measuring employee characteristics using the selection interview?
structured interviews are more effective than unstructured interviews
candidates prefer interviews over tests
what are assessment centers?
extensive sets of exercises designed to determine an individuals suitability for a particular job
2-3 days of exercises
what are the two types of performance criteria used to evaluate job performance?
theoretical: statement of what we mean by good or poor performance in theory
actual: specifies what we should measure to determine if the theoretical criterion has been met
What are two different types of performance appraisal methods? describe each
objective: include counting frequency of particular behaviors or the results of those behaviors. aren't right for all jobs
subjective: supervisor's judgments about various aspects of an employee's work (graphic: list several criterion related dimensions of job performance and provide a space for the supervisor to rate each employee's performance on each. behavioral: rate on specific behaviors rather than general dimensions of performance)
How does an I/O psychologist conduct a validation study?
research projects designed to determine how well a particular test, interview, or other assessment method predicts an employee's job performance
What are important legal issues regarding recruitment and selection practices?
hiring, firing, promotion processes shouldn't discriminate against anyone on the basis of of characteristics that have nothing to do with job performance
What is the first step in developing a training program?
assess training needs
What are key principles of training?
what is transfer?
teaching knowledge/skills that generalize (transfer) to the workplace
what is feedback?
overlearning involves what?
reaching a higher level of performance without much thinking
what are types of sequencing?
massed training: less expansive
distributed training: less time
How are training programs evaluated? (3 levels of criteria)
What are 4 theories of workplace motivation?
2. Alderfer's ERG
3. Expectancy theory
4. Goal setting theory
What is Maslow's theory of workplace motivation?
hierarchy of needs (motivation-emotion chapter)
What is Alderfer's ERG theory of workplace motivation?
places human needs into 3 rather than 5 categories
What is the expectancy theory of workplace motivation?
employees act in accordance with expected results and how much they value those results
what is the goal setting theory of workplace motivation?
employee's behavior is shaped by their intention to achieve specific goals
What are factors that influence job satisfaction?
the work itself: complexity/challenge/control
salary: many feel underpaid
work-family conflict: many feel conflict between their family and their job. more conflict means less satisfaction
gender: few factors
genetics: may be genetically predispositioned to have less job satisfaction
How much does job satisfaction correlate with these various outcomes?
job performance, OCBs, turnover, absenteeism, Aggression and CWBs
job performance: better with satisfaction
OCBs: (organizational citizenship behavior) willingness to go above and beyond, is better with satisfaction
turnover: loss of employees, dissatisfaction when another job can be found
absenteeism: weak correlation
aggression and CWBs: dissatisfaction is a cause. the most likely victim is the company itself
what is occupational health psychology?
studies psych factors that affect health/safety.
universal precautions: set of safety procedures
what is a repetitive strain injury? how do engineering or human factors psychologists do to help?
joints become enflamed, sometimes causing permanent damage (i.e. carpal tunnel syndrome)
wrist pads, work breaks
how does rotating shift work impact health?
messes up circadian rhythms
what are different types of work schedules and their impacts?
long shifts: greater job satisfaction and better performance, but may cause health problems
long weeks: health problems
What is safety climate?
provide adequate safety training for employees, conduct thorough and frequent safety inspections, and ensure that supervisors consistently communicate the need for safety
What are different types of work groups and teams?
autonomous work groups: manage themselves, don't report to anyone
work team: members' specialized activities are coordinated and interdependent as they work toward a common goal