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  1. Eating problems in older adults) assessing the problem (4)
    -physical difficulties



    -food quality
  2. Eating problems in older adults) assessing the problem: physical difficulties (3)

    -sore outh

    -gum disease
  3. Eating problems in older adults) assessing the problem: disease (5)




  4. Eating problems in older adults) assessing the problem: environment
    • changes
    • *new place, noise, distractions etc
  5. Eating problems in older adults) assessing the problem: food quality
    Home cooked to processed foods found in retirement homes
  6. Oral health depends on (5)
    -GI secretions

    -skeletal systems


    -taste buds

    -olfactory nerves
  7. Routine mouth care involves (4)
    -rinsing with diluted mild mouthwash

    -brushing of teeth

    -soaking of dentures overnight

    -applying Vaseline to dry lips
  8. Tooth and gum disease) what is the main cause?
    • Dental caries
    • *especially root caries
  9. Tooth and gum disease) second cause of this
    Peridontal disease
  10. Tooth and gum disease) risk factors for being edentulous (4)
    -low income have double risk


    • -educational level & being male
    • *related to inadequate dental seeking behaviors
  11. Dental caries and diet) most prominent form of tooth decay in the elderly?
    root caries
  12. Dental caries and diet) how to remedy xerostomia (dry mouth) (3)

    -sour candies

    -sugar free gum
  13. Fermentable carbs AND dental caries
    These types of carbs are more likely to create caries because they crumble and squeeze in between cracks then ferment.

    *cakes, soda, etc
  14. Dental caries and diet) consequences of partial dentures
    Abrasion or erosion of enamel
  15. Dental caries and diet) how does aging cause lack of pain?
    Aging causes less secondary denting, vascularity, and sensitivity of dental pulp
  16. Dental caries and diet) what does lack of pain bc of eroded nerve ends lead to?
    No timely dentist visit because they don't feel pain in teeth
  17. What causes xerostomia?
    Lack of saliva
  18. Xerostomia) 2 things it may result in

  19. Xerostomia) is it normal part of aging?
  20. Xerostomia) caused by numerous drugs (5)



    -anti-depp./ anxiety

  21. Xerostomia) how can it be improved? (4)
    -drinking more liquids

    -use of artificial saliva substitutes

    -chewing sugarless gum

    -good diet
  22. Peridontal disease) how does it result?
    Bacterial infection of gingiva
  23. Peridontal disease) what does it lead to? (2)
    -Destruction of ligaments attaching teeth to jawbone

    -receding gums
  24. Peridontal disease) how is it measured?
    > 6 mm gingival detachment
  25. Peridontal disease) prevention (3)
    -strict oral hygiene to remove plaque

    -enhance immune system

    -optimal nutrition
  26. Angular cheilitis) what is it?
    Chronic inflammation of corners of the mouth usually due to Candida fungus
  27. Angular cheilitis) causes? (5)
    -Fe deficit

    -b12 deficit

    -folate deficit

    -zinc deficit

    -drooping sides of mouth due to dentures not providing muscular support
  28. GERD)
    gastroespophageal reflux
  29. GERD) how is this caused?
    -Lower esophageal sphincter weakens thus allowing stomach contents to flow back into esophagus
  30. GERD) main symptoms (2)
    -Heart burn

    -acid regurgitation
  31. GERD) what is an imporattn risk factor?
    • age
    • *as one grows older, LES gets weaker
  32. GERD) nutritional remedies (4)
    -low fat

    -avoid large meals

    -sit upright after eating

    -reduce intake of foods that stimulate gastric acid
  33. Constipation ) self defined
    Abdominal discomfort, straining, passage of hard stools, inability to defecate when desired, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation
  34. Constipation ) Rome III Def. : 2 of the following symptoms are present at least 12 weeks in last year (3)
    -straining, lumpy, or hard stools

    -sensation of incomplete evacuation or blockage

    -manual manipulation to facilitate
  35. Constipation ) what is considered as constipation?
    Less than 3 bowel movements per week
  36. Causes of constipation) aging intestinal muscles become...
    • Less responsive leading to increased storage time
    • *peristalsis not as efficient
  37. Causes of constipation) stomach secretions AND Muscle strength & peristalsis
    Lower levels of stomach secretions and potentially less muscle strength may affect peristalsis
  38. Causes of constipation) diseases (5)
    -irritable bowel



    -thyroid disease

  39. Causes of constipation) obstruction or diverticulosis : how can it cause constipation?
    It can slow down the transit time
  40. Causes of constipation) risk factors (3)

    • -medications
    • *most claim constipation as side effect

    -high iron or other mineral supplements
  41. Causes of constipation) evidence that exercise relieves constipation in elders?
    It is lacking
  42. Nutritional interventions for constipation ) increase overall fiber intake
    -insoluble fiber add to fecal bulk and stimulates peristalsis
  43. Nutritional interventions for constipation ) what should patients be counseled?
    Target should be at least 3 bowel movements per week
  44. Nutritional interventions for constipation ) use of bulk laxatives (2)
    -psyllium, methylcellulose

    • -special bran recipe
    • *unprocessed bran, applesauce, prune juice
  45. Nutritional interventions for constipation ) if no bowel movement by 2nd day use  (2)
    -osmotic laxative

    -magnesium hydroxide
  46. Nutritional interventions for constipation ) if no response? (2)

  47. Dysphagia) what is it?
    Difficulty swallowing
  48. Dysphagia) Not a disease but...
    It is a condition that results bc of a disease
  49. Dysphagia) condition associated with this (10)


    -cerebral palsy

    -mouth/throat cancer

    -muscular dystrophy

    -muscular sclerosis


    -spinal cord injury


    -traumatic brain injury
  50. Swallowing process) oral phase
    -sucking, chewing, and moving food or liquid into the throat
  51. Swallowing process) pharyngeal phase
    -starting the swallow, squeezing food down the throat, and closing off the airway to prevent food or liquid from entering the airway or to prevent choking
  52. Swallowing process) esophageal phase  (2)
    -relaxing and tightening the openings at the top and bottom of the esophagus

    -squeezing food through the esophagus into the stomach
  53. Barium swallow test for dysphagia ) what is it used for?
    To diagnose
  54. Barium swallow test for dysphagia ) what is it made from?
    Barium sulfate
  55. Barium swallow test for dysphagia ) how is it afdmintieterd ?
    Added to foods/beverages of different viscosities
  56. Barium swallow test for dysphagia ) what is taken to track down the barium?
  57. Signs and symptoms of dysphagia ) (8)
    -difficulty controlling food or saliva in the mouth

    -difficulty initiating a swallow

    -coughing during or immediately after eating or drinking

    -recurring pneumonia or chest congestion

    -throat clearing while eating

    -sensation of food getting stuck

    -coughing or choking

    -wet or girly voice after swallowing
  58. Dysphagia) consistency of liquids: nectar thick liquids (2)
    -slightly thicker than water that coat and drip off a spoon

    -similar to unset gelatin
  59. Dysphagia) consistency of liquids: honey thick liquids
    Thick as honey and flow off a spoon in a ribbon
  60. Dysphagia) consistency of liquids: spoon thick liquids (2)
    -pudding consistency

    -remain on spoon in a soft mass
  61. Dysphagia) consistency of liquids: standards for any of these?
    No, they all vary by the insititution that it is being served
  62. Dysphagia) consistency of liquids: 4 natural thickeners used?
    -instant potatoes flakes


    -puréed fruits in juice

    -puréed veggies
  63. Dysphagia) minimize eating and nutrition problems (5)
    -avoid foods that are hard to chew or swallow

    -serve soft foods

    -encourage person to sit up straight

    -after meal is over, ensure that there isn't any of it remaining on mouth

    -be alert for choking and aspiration
  64. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 4
    • Regular foods
    • *nothing changes
  65. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 3 advanced-mild dysphagia
    -near-regular with the exception of very hard, sticky, or crunchy foods
  66. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 3 advanced-mild dysphagia how should foods be served?
    bite size cubes
  67. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 3 advanced-mild dysphagia, avoid...
    -crusty or dry bread, nuts, apples, dry fruit, coconut, raw veggies and corn
  68. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 2; mechanically altered (2)
    -foods are moist, soft, and cohesive

    -meats are ground or minced
  69. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 2; mechanically altered , avoid...
    Rice, corn, bread, soups, and casseroles with large chunks, nuts, and chewy, stringy or dry foods
  70. Dysphagia) food consistency modification: level 1; puréed foods with added protein (4)
    • -pureed and cohesive foods
    • *no mixed textures

    -everything is pudding like

    -nothing that requires chewing is allowed

    -close supervision during feeding
  71. Look at slides for tips for feeding older patients
  72. Look for hints for caregiver for older patients
  73. Head & neck exercises) how is it? And what does it do (2)
    -patient lying supine and lifting head up for 20x.

    Reinforces the action of suprahyoid muscles that are cortical to upper esophageal sphincter opening
Card Set:
2014-12-07 06:21:16
Life nutrition

GI and oral health
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