Heartworms

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rpanek
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290854
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Heartworms
Updated:
2014-12-07 02:29:44
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  1. what is the etiology for heartworms
    Dirofilaria immitis
  2. the mosquito is considered the what with heartworms
    biological vector
  3. what are the three most common species of mosquitoes
    • Culex
    • Aedes
    • anopheles
  4. who is more likely to carry microfilaria a male or female
    • females
    • men usually die or are in-effected
  5. Where are the three most infested areas in the US
    • Gulf coast
    • East coast
    • great lakes
  6. What are 4 methods for diagnosis of heartworms
    • blood sample
    • history
    • radiology
    • echocardiography
  7. what are the 5 types of blood sampling
    • direct smear of blood - 64%
    • modified knotts method - 84 (don't use anymore)
    • micropore filtration method - 84
    • microhematicrit tube (PCV) - least
    • occult test (antigen/antibody)
  8. This test is used to detect an antigen produced by female hw's but it requires at least 3 females for positive test
    • Antigen occult test
    • detects Glycoprotein substance produced by females
  9. This test is often used for cats and is less specific
    antibody test
  10. what is the percent of dogs positive for heartworms but negative for microfilaria
    50%
  11. What is the percent of dogs positive for microfilaria but don't have adult heartworms
    2-5%
  12. what is the average life span for adult heartwoms? what is it for microfilaria?
    • 7 years
    • 4-5 years
  13. what are 3 medications that will react with microfilaria
    • milbemycin oxime (Interceptor/Sentinel)
    • Dichlorvos (Task)
    • Diethylcarbamazine citrate (filariabits)
  14. how many microfilaria can a mosquitoe hold before it dies
    • 13
    • average amount that they hold is 8
  15. what is the nickname for heartworm disease
    • 3 month disease
    • since the S2a is in the pulmonary artery for 80 days before maturing
  16. How many heartworms will a dog have post mortum
    14
  17. what is the molting time depending on temperature (C)
    30
    26
    22
    18
    12
    • 8 (days)
    • 12
    • 17
    • 29
    • death
  18. how many heartworms do cats usually have post mortum
    • 1 to 2
    • ferrets have the same but they can produce microfilaria
  19. what is the percent of s5a that will mature to s5 hws
    75 - 80%
  20. what constitutes right and left side heart failure
    • right side - heartworm disease
    • left side - mitral valve insufficiency
  21. what is caval syndrome
    when heart worms backup into the vena cavas resulting in acities blood in the peritoneal cavity
  22. What is the most common indoor mosquito and what is it's nickname
    • Culex
    • dual mosquito
  23. what are the 4 classes of heartworm severity
    • class 1 - asymptomatic or mild signs
    • class 2 - moderate clinical and radiographic abnormalities
    • class 3 - severe clinical and radiographic abnormalities including right side congestive heart failure
    • class 4 - everything in class 3. usually caval syndrome too.
  24. What are some things that are see in blood work of a hw positive dog
    • eosinophilea and basophilia - most common
    • neutrophilic leukocytocytosis - seen with pulmonary thromboembolisms
    • thrombocytopenia - common in arterial and lung associated disease
    • hemoglobinurea - seen with caval syndrome and pulmonary disease
  25. what are 5 preventatives and who makes them
    • Diethycarbamazine citrate (Pfizer)
    • Ivermectin (heartgard) - Merial
    • Milbemycin oxime (interceptor) - Novartis
    • Selamectin (revolution) - Pfizer
    • Moxidectin ( Advantage Multi) - Bayer
    • Thiacetarsamide sodium (Caparsolate) - Rhone merieux
  26. What stage did DEC kill and how was it administered
    • S3 only
    • had to be given once a day
    • oral chew
    • - said to cause sterility in male dogs
  27. What was added to DEC for ascarids
    Oxibenazole
  28. Ivermectin (heartgard) killed what stages of heartworms and how was it administered
    • Killed S1, S3, S4
    • given once a month
  29. what does ivermectin offer
    forgiveness factor
  30. Milbemycin oxime (interceptor) how often does it have to be given and what stages does it kill
    • every 30 days
    • kills S3 and S4
  31. what was the first preventative that killed both fleas and internal parasites
    Milbemycin oxime (interceptor)
  32. what was added to Interceptor for the control of fleas
    Lufenuron
  33. Selamectin how often is it given and what does it kill
    • once a month
    • ovatrol, intstinal parasites, otodecties cynotis, sarcoptic mange, S1, S3, S4
  34. what was the first topical heartworm preventative approved by the FDA
    Revolution (Selamectin)
  35. Moxidectin (Proheart) how often is it given and how is it administered
    • 6 months
    • injectable
  36. Moxidectin/Immidacloprid (Advantage Multi) how often is it given and how is it administered
    • once a month
    • topical
  37. What are some treatments for microfilaria
    • ivermectin 1% ivermec (Merial) - drug of choice
    • Selamectin (Revolution)
    • Dithiazine Iodine (Dizan) - only microfilaricide approved by the FDA (not really used)
    • Levamisole (not used)
    • Fenthion (not used)
  38. What are two adulticides used for heartworms
    • Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide) - Merial
    • Thiacetarsamide sodium (caparsolate)
    • Levamisole HCl (not used anymore)
    • Fenthion (Talodex) - not used anymroe
  39. Other things used to to help with heartworm treatment
    • Aspirin
    • Heparin
    • Corticosteroids
    • Oxygen
  40. exercises produces more ____ ______ ____ in dogs with full adults (14) for 6 months. As comparison to a non-exercising dog with 50 hw for 18 months
    Pulmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR)
  41. what are 4 post treatment side effects
    • dyspnea and severe coughing
    • acute lung injury due to absorption of adults being absorbed by teh macrophages in the lungs
    • pulmonary thromboembolisms
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
  42. Post hw treatment how long will blood pressure stay elevated
    9 months
  43. Post hw treatment right side congestive heart failure can be seen at ___-___ months post infection
    10-17 months
  44. Which lobe of the lung is the most severely affected by the infective stage hw and dead hw that have moved to the lungs for reabsorption
    Diaphramatic lobe
  45. How long will it take an adulticide to kill the adult heartworms and how long will it take for the worms to be removed from the lungs
    • 21-28 days
    • 6 months
    • - lungs are never the same can take from 6 months to 1 year
  46. How is cavel syndrome generally diagnosed
    Echocardiographs
  47. Why is adulticide treatment not recommended with cavel syndrome dogs
    Produces acute cardiovascualr collapse and shock
  48. describe the surgical procedure used to treat cavel syndrome dogs
    using minimal sedation/local anesthetic and long flexable alligator forceps. Making a incision in the right jugular and pull out the heartworms
  49. what veins are enter when extracting the heartworms in a cavel syndrome dog
    • right jugular
    • right subclavian vein
    • right brachioceophalic vein
    • cranial vena cava

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