paleo new

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  1. Define Fossils
    remains or evidence of organisms preserved in sediments or sedimentary rocks.
  2. Where do we find fossils?
    in sedimentary and low grade metamorphic rocks

    they may act as a nucleus and create concreations
  3. paleo(bio)geography
    trace contenental drift by means of fossils. e.g. fresh water fish cant swim across ocean.
  4. 4 possible movements of species dispersion
    • land bridge
    • rafting
    • island hop
    • cont. drift
  5. why are fossils imporntant to evolution?
    they are the only direct evidence of the history of life
  6. what is biostratigraphy?
    use of fossils in deducing succesion and age relations
  7. qualifications of index fossisl (6)
    • easily recognizable
    • short strat range
    • easily preserved
    • worldwide distribution
    • rapid evolution
    • abundance
  8. why do we study fossils? (6)
    • simple fascination
    • paleogeography
    • paleoecology
    • biostratigraphy
    • evolution
    • economics
  9. what is taphonomy?
    taphonomy is the studdy of fossil preservation
  10. what is the oldest frozen fossil we could have on earth?
    quaternary was the last ice age
  11. how deep is the photic zone?
    200m that light can penetrate for photosynthetic animals
  12. Neritic
    pelagic zone above the shelf as opposed to oceanic palagic
  13. planktonic
  14. nektonic
    actively swiming
  15. benthic
    bottom dwelling
  16. 3 types of preservation
    • body fossils
    • molds and casts
    • ichnofossils/tracefossils
  17. how are body fossils preserved?
    • unaltered
    • freezing
    • drying/desication
    • amber/tar

    • altered
    • perminerlization
    • recrystalization
    • replacement
    • carbonization
  18. what is perminerlization?
    it is petrification, pores fill with calcium or silica fluids

    original material not removed

    added matter makes fossils much heavier than original
  19. what is recrystilazation
    the hard parts grow in grain size or revrt to a more stable form
  20. what is replacement
    hard parts are disolved and replaced by other minerals like calcite silica pyrite or iron
  21. what is carbonization?
    all elements are removed exectp carbon
  22. what is a mold?
    a cavity with the shape of bone shell or organism
  23. what is a cast?
    a cast is the filling of a mold by minerals or sediments
  24. what are ichnofossils?
    trace fossils, evidence of organisms with no actual remains
  25. name ichnofossils from bathyal to shore
    • nerites
    • zoophycus
    • cruzziana
    • skolithos
    • glossifungates
    • teredolite 
    • trypanite
  26. trypanites?
    vertical burrow in rocky shore
  27. teredolites
    burrowing in wood or peat
  28. clossifungates
    vertical in unconsolidated sediments
  29. skolithos
    vertical burrow in ssandy offshore
  30. cruzziana
    locomotion trails shallow marine shelf (sublitoral)
  31. zoophycus
    feeding traces in low energy muds on outer shelf
  32. tryapanites
    little bore holes in shell and bone from predation
  33. what is an ichnofacies
    a set of trace fossils associated with a particular envoirnment
  34. what are the 7 components of structure?
    • calcium carbonate / arragonite
    • silica
    •  calcium phosphate
    • chitin (crab shell)
    • cellulose (tress/plants)
    • ressistant organics (pollens)
    • others
  35. what are molecular fossils
    the chemical signiture is preserved with no idication of the structure
  36. bones preserved vs teeth
    theeth are hard calcium phosphate = recrystalize

    bones porus = permineralized
  37. what are the components of taphonomy (3)
    • necrolysis
    • biostratinomy
    • diagenisis
  38. what is necrolysis?
    the death break up and decay and decomposition phase
  39. what is biostratinomy?
    aftre necrolysis but beofre burrial process of altering the remains
  40. what is diagenisis?
    the physical and biological changes that take place after burrial
  41. what is elvis taxa
    • taxa that is mis identified as being an extinct species...
    • 1 dies and 2 looks like 1 but its not
  42. what is the zombie effect, zombie taxa?
    when an old fossil appears in much younger sediments due to reworking of the origanal older rock
  43. what is lazarus taxa
    taxa that temporarily disaperas from fossil record
  44. how complete is the fossil record?
    97% not preserved
  45. classification for animals vs plants
    • kingdom
    • phylum ---- division
    • class 
    • order
    • family 
    • genus
    • species
  46. how does a paleontological species differ froma true species?
    based on simalr geomorphology not ability to breed
  47. what is ontogenisis
    change in morphology within an individuals life span
  48. how do populations vary? (4)
    • ecophenotypic variation - changes due to envoirnment
    • taphonomic varibility- distortion aftre death
    • sexual dimorphism - diferences between males and females
    • copes rule - body size enlarges throughout evolution
  49. what is the taphonomioc filter (7 levels)
    a graph showing amount of preservation through stages

    • life assembalge
    • paleoecology
    • death assemblage
    • biostratinomy
    • total fossil assemblage
    • diagenisis
    • collection
  50. principals to sexual dimorphism
    males females 1:1 ratio

    similar morphology in early stages

    late stage diffreences amonites = larger femal and males with lapplets
  51. four types of skelatal growth
    • accretion 
    • addition
    • molting
    • modification
  52. addition skelatal growth
    adding of discrete growth layers over time
  53. addition skelatal modification
    adding of discrete new parts which grow little after formation
  54. what is molting
    the shedding of an exoskeleton
  55. modification skelatal growth
    the continual remodeling and adding to exsisting elements
  56. define stratigraphy
    the study of sedimentary rock strata
  57. 5 most important steno laws to paleo
    • super position - oldest lower
    • original horizontality - deposit flat
    • original continuity- extend until enviro Δ
    • fossil succession - oldest fossil found in lowest layer
    • fossil correlation - similar asemblages are similar age
  58. quaternary / tertiary age
    2.6 mya
  59. k/t extinction
    65 mya
  60. p/t extiction
    250 mya
  61. devonian/ carboniferous age
    360 mya
    444 MYA
  63. PC / Cambrian age
    542 mya
  64. archean proterozoic age
    2500 mya
  65. hadean / archean age
    3800 mya
  66. 3 principals pieces of evidence for PC life
    • morhologiocal fossils - black cherts
    • stromatolites
    • chemical fossisl

    all show photo synthesis
  67. stromatolite vs oncoid
    • oncoids are sphereical around a nucleus
    • stromatolites are columnar
  68. describe growth of stromatolite
    • thin threads of cyanobacteria trap calcareous sediment
    • clacaerous mud builds up
    • cyanobacteria grows through mud
    • repition makes layering
  69. artifial organic walled phytoplankton is a
  70. what organism had first bilateral symetry
    spriggina - centipede like thing ediacara
  71. what is the oldest fossil of the precam
    charina, deep water filter feeder
  72. first organism with hard shell
    cloudina tube worm
  73. 4 advantages to having hard body parts
    • protection from uv
    • prevents drying out
    • protection predators
    • support
  74. when did hard body parts become common?
    cambrian explosion
  75. all but _________ phyla existed in some form since the cambrian
  76. what is effacement?
    evolutionary addaption related to burrowing in mud
  77. what is spinosity
    eveloutionary trend of evolving spines to stick in mud
  78. evolutionary trends in benthic triloobites
    effacement, spinosity, lack of eyes, addition of body segments
  79. eveloutionary trends in pelagic trilobites
    • large eyes point downward
    • elongate streamlined bodies
  80. what fossil is representative of the earlies chordate
    pikia a worm like thing
  81. high spread rate make __ seas
    low spread makes_______
    • high spread = calcite seas
    • low spread = arrogonite
  82. what is the similaritie between braciopoda and bryozoa?
    the lophore feeding breeting tube
  83. inarticulata vs articulata morphology
    inarticulata CaPO4, anus, no muscle, no teeth

    articulata CaCO3 no anus, yes muscle, yes teeth
  84. taxodont
    umerous sub parellel teeth
  85. dysodont
    small simple teeth
  86. isodont
    very large teeth either sid eof central ligment
  87. heterodont
    two or three cardianl tewth
  88. what was prominet cretacious reef builder
    rudist bivalves
  89. what is palynology?
    the study of pollens and spores
  90. when was the first land plants?
    late ordavician
  91. plants evolved from ?
    green algae
  92. what was an early land plant? what did it have?
    cooksonia had vascular titue and soprangia (spore bearing organs)
  93. photosynthetic wonderplant of the silurian?
  94. when was the first tree?
    archeoteris in the late devonian
  95. what time ranges where major coal and what made them
    carbiniferous and permian host alot of coal from clalmites the large rush like trees
  96. plant dispersal in the devonian
    • 1) only near water
    • 2) plants spread out through devonian, pollen very flamable fires
    • 3) swamps of dead burnt trees lead to coal of carboniferous
  97. what where the big reef builders in the cretacious and whqat class are they
    rudists where major reef builders , made the chalk cliffs in UK, there was no middle cretacious and they are coclithopores
  98. what is the red queen hypothesis
    theory that organism must constantly adapt, evolve and proliferate to avoid extinction
  99. back ground extinction vs mass extinction
    backround exticntion is gradational over long time period, mass extinction is a very sudden change often due to catastrophy
  100. what is the only way to correlate terrigenous to aquatic rocks?
  101. what is an aproxuimate number to define mass extinction?
    if >10 fmailies/1mya years qualifies a mass extinctions
  102. 5 general reasons for mass extinctions
    • bolide impacts (meteors)
    • climate change
    • volcanism
    • sea level change
    • ocean chemistry change
  103. 10 major steps in the diversification of life?
    • origin of life
    • eukaryotes and reproduction
    • multicellularity
    • skeletons
    • predation
    • reef building
    • terrestrialization
    • forests
    • flight
    • concsiousness
  104. what defines the cambrian fauna? how long was it
    trilobites cam-ord
  105. what defines the paleozoic fauna? how long did it last?
    bracchiopods ord-perm
  106. what defines modern fauna? how long?
    • defined by gastropds
    • perm-pres
  107. when and what caused the ordavician extinction
    • 444 mya 
    • glaciation
  108. when what caused the devonian extinction?
    • 360 mya
    • causes unkonwn
  109. what/when causes of the P/T extinction
    • 250 mya
    • sealevel and siberian traps
  110. what/when of the triasic extinction
    • 200 mya
    • sub aqueous volcanics  break up of pangea
  111. what/ when of the K/t
    • 65 mya
    • bollide impact
  112. 6 keys to an idex fossils use in biostrat
    • abundant
    • easily ID
    • large geographic range
    • wide range of enviornemnts
    • narrow strat range
    • easily preserved
  113. what is the telizone
    range between LFAD/LRAD localized
  114. what is the taxon range
    range between GRAD/GLAD global
  115. what is the concurrent range zone
    when the fad and lad is blended between two localitys using lads and fad
  116. what is an assemblage zone?
    charecterized by 3 or more taxa
  117. what is an abundance zone
    subset of the telizone where there is an abundace of an index fossil
  118. what 4 ways describe the test of bryozoa and describe in geral
    • discoid- hi energy = discs
    • fenistrated- spiral
    • encrusting - all over
    • branching - low e - tree like
  119. what four terms describe the symetry of bivalves?
    • equi valve, inequivalve (x-sec view)
    • equi latteral / inequilateral (plan view)
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paleo new
2014-12-08 04:40:49
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