Systemic fungus/fungus like bacteria/blood groups

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Systemic fungus/fungus like bacteria/blood groups
2014-12-07 15:47:25


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  1. Where are the most endemic areas in the U.S. for systemic fungal infections
    • Eastern Seaboard
    • Great Lakes
    • River valleys of the Mississippi
    • Ohio
    • St. Lawrence waterways
  2. How are systemic fungal infections contracted
    • inhalation of spores or mycelial fragments
    • skin penetration (rare)
    • ingestion
  3. all fungi are ___ meaning having properties of both sexes. Except _____
    • Dimorphic
    • Cryptococcosis
  4. ___ is thread like hyphae that thrive at 25 degree C (cold)
  5. ____ like are routine fungi that produce a budding at 37 degree C (warm)
  6. If an animal is running a temperature and antibiotics are given and the temp. is till elevated its either _____ or _____
    • fungus
    • protozoan
  7. what are two systemic fungus characteristics
    • chronic cough
    • persistent fever
  8. What are 3 types of animals are most suceptible to systemic fungal infections
    • debilitated
    • immunodeficient
    • immuosuppressed
  9. How are systemic fungal lesions characterized
    • abscess
    • ulceration and nodular formation at the site of infection
    • most infections develop slowly and course is always chronic
  10. Systemic fungal infections are said to be _____
  11. what are the 4 systemic fungal etiologies
    • Blastomycosis
    • Coccidioidomycosis
    • Cryptococcosis
    • Histoplasmosis
  12. What is the nick name for North American Blastomycosis
    Gilchrist's Disease
  13. What is the etiology for North and South American Blastomycosis
    • Blastomyces dermatitis (NA)
    • Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (SA)
  14. What is the most common mycotic systemic disease in South East Texas
    Blastomyces dermatitis
  15. Who is more likely to contract Blastomycosis, male or female
    male more likely to contract but female mroe likely to survive
  16. Blastomycosis is considered a ___ ____ disease
    Chronic wasting disease
  17. Where is the most common infection site for Blastomycosis
    lungs specifically the bronchial and mediastinal lymphnodes
  18. What the percentages for Blastomycosis symptoms
    lung lesions with dry harsh lung sounds
    ocular lesions anterior uveitis
    pustular skin lesions
    bone involvement and lameness
    • 85%
    • 40%
    • 20-50%
    • 30%
  19. Where are draining lesions with Blastomycosis usually found
    ear pinnae
  20. What are the 3 distinctive sub-type isolates of Blastomycosis
    • A -most common type seen in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas and Mississippi
    • B
    • C
  21. Describe the mode of infection for systemic mycotic diseases
    • spores enter the terminal airways and establish a primary infection in the lungs
    • Yeast grows at body temperature to big to be coughed up.
    • then it spreads through the vascular system and spreads to the skin, eyes, and muscular system
  22. What are the layers of the eye front to back
    • Sclera - white of the eye
    • Iris - color part of the eye
    • cilary body - muscles in the front of the eye
    • choroid - muscle on the back of the eye
  23. What is the etiology for Histoplasmosis
    Histoplasma capsulatum
  24. Histoplasmosis is commonly found in ___ and ____ ___. It grows best in soil with ____ rich organic matter
    • chicken and bat dung
    • nitrogen
  25. what are the two forms for Histoplasmosis
    • Intestinal form - bloody diarrhea (water like)
    • Lymphoid form - general lymphadenopathy
  26. there has been an increase of Histoplasmosis in ___ due to the ___ weather
    • cats
    • wet weather
  27. What is the real name for Histooplasmosis
    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum
  28. What are the most common systemic mocotic diseases in TX
    • Blastomycosis
    • Histoplasmosis
  29. What are some things caused by Histoplasmosis
    • Peripapillary retinal edema
    • granulomas on kidneys
  30. What is the nickname for Coccidioidomycosis
    • Valley Fever
    • San Joaquin Vally Fever
  31. What is the etiology for Coccidioidomycosis
    Coccidioides immitis
  32. Coccidioidomycosis is a soil born fungus and is said to be ___ (good in both cold and warm weather)
  33. a term for fungal spores
  34. What is the most common systemic fungal infection in humans
    Coccidioidomycosis (San Joaquin Vally fever)
  35. What are the ideal enviornmental conditions for Coccidioidomycosis
    • alkaline soil
    • low elevation
    • basically valley like environment
  36. What are the two etiologies for Cryptococcosis
    • Cryptococcosis neoformans (common)
    • Cryptococcosis gatti
  37. What is Cryptococcosis also known as
    European Blastomycosis
  38. What is Cryptococcosis commonly found in
    • Pigeon excreta
    • Pigeons are reservoirs
  39. What are some of the common symptoms for Cryptococcosis
    • Upper respiratory problems
    • sneezing/snuffling
    • Mucopurulent discharge
  40. What are the two major sites effected by Cryptococcosis
    • upper respiratory track
    • central nervous system
  41. What is something noted in cats infected with Cryptococcosis
    Swelling on the bridge of the nose
  42. What are three ways that fungal infections are diagnosed
    • skin test antigens
    • serology
    • microscopic identification of fungi
  43. What are 6 treatments for systemic fungal infections
    • Amphotericin B (Fungizone)
    • Ketoconazole (KTZ)
    • Itraconazole (ITZ)
    • Fluconazole (Triazole)
    • Flucutosin
    • Enilconazole (Europe)
  44. What are two fungal like bacteria
    • Nocardiosis
    • Actinomycosis
  45. What are the two etiologies for Nocardiosis
    • Nocardia asteroides
    • Nocardia braziliensis
  46. What are the three forms for Nocardiosis
    • systemic form - pyrexia, anorexia, coughing, dyspena and neurological signs
    • primary respiratory form - common in dogs and cats. Pleural effusion and empyema (pyothorax)
    • cutaneous form - pyogranulomatous formations, abscessation and ulceration
  47. How is Nocardiosis transmitted
    • Inhalation
    • SQ inoculation
    • ingestion
  48. what does the pus from Nocardiosis look like
    Red color, looks like tomato soup
  49. what is the nickname for Actinomycosis
    wooden tongue
  50. What is the etiology for Actinomycosis
    Actinomyces bovis
  51. what are the two methods for transmission for Actinomycosis
    • respiratory (inhaled grass seeds)
    • Penetrating: Mandibular osteitis with pyrexia and draining wounds.
  52. How is Actinomycosis diagnosed
    Exudate it looks like sulfur granules
  53. What does DEA stand for for dog blood?
    Canine Erthrocyte Antigen
  54. How many blood types are there for dogs
  55. what are the two most common types of blood for dogs
    • DEA 4 and 6
    • they make up 98% of blood type
  56. What is the lowest type of blood for a dog
    DEA 3
  57. What is the most reactive blood types for dogs
    • DEA 1 and 2
    • These produce sever hemolytic reactions
  58. the first blood transfusion for dogs will have no reaction but why should we avoid random blood transfusions
    • risk of sensitization and subsequent sever transfers
    • RBC's that are transfused have a shorten life span
  59. why can't cats have random blood transfusions
    because of the existence of strong performed isoantibodies
  60. how many types of blood are there for a cat
    • 3
    • A, B, and AB
  61. what is the most common type of blood for a cat
    A - most common in the U.S.
  62. what is considered the most rare blood type for cats? what is the most reactive
    • AB - very rare universal recipient
    • B - cats reaction after 1 mL of incompatible blood