Psych #4

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Psych #4
2009-12-12 22:10:34

exam 4
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  1. Circadian Rhythms
    Cycle that is connected with the 24hr period of the earths rotation
  2. Insomnia
    • Trying to get sleep compounds their sleep problems by creating
    • autonomic activity and muscle tension.

    You cant force yourself to sleep.
  3. Narolepsy
    • Suddenly falling asleep. Lasts about 15 minutes. Disorder of
    • REM sleep functioning. Stimulants and antidepressants help.
  4. Meditation
    Thinking deeply about the universe or ones place in theworld, spiritual context.
  5. Marijuana
    Helps people relax and can elevate their mood. Can produce mild hallucinations.HALLUCINOGEN.
  6. Mental set
    The tendency to respond to a new problem with the sameapproach that helped solve similar problems.
  7. Insight
    • Gestalts psychology
    • Sudden perception of relationships among elements of theperceptual field permitting the solution of a problem.
  8. Conflict(Approach & Avoidance)

    Approach-Approach: Leaststressful-both 2 goals are desirable and within reach. Solved by making adecision.Avoidance-Avoidance: Stressful.Motivated to avoid both negative goals. Avoiding one requires approaching theother. Solved by thinking about something else.Approach-Avoidance: the same goal produces both approach andavoidance motives. EXP.cheesecake=tastes good but lots of calories. Multiple Approach-avoidance:Most complex. Each of several alternative courses of action has pluses andminuses. EXP. Studying or going to the movies
  9. Catastrophizing/Catastraphic
    Catastrophize:to interpret negativeevents as being disastrous, to blow out of proportion. Contribute to anxietyand depression from a loss.
  10. Selective
    attention & divided attention
    Focusing attention on one particular stimulus. EXP. To keep car onroad you must focus only on road not on cell or radio.
  11. ADHD
  12. problem with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination. For
    • these problems to be diagnosed as ADHD, they must be out of the normal range
    • for the child's age and development.
  13. Why do we sleep?
    To recover from stress or depression.
  14. Why do
    we dream?
    Psychological and biologically oriented.
  15. Psychoanalytic
    Freud. Structural model of personality, topographical model of personality,defense mechanisms, drives, and the psychosexual stages of development. The primary driving force behind the theory is the id, ego and superego and thedivision of consciousness into the conscious mind, the pre/subconscious, andthe unconscious.
  16. Activation-synthesis
    Neurotransmitter and pons stimulate responses that lead to dreaming.Activation of RAS arouses us and stimulates parts of cortex involved inmemory-cortex then synthesizes these sources to yield stuff of dreams.
  17. Cognitive
    Thetreatment approach based on the theory that our cognitions or thoughts controla large part of our behaviors and emotions. Therefore, changing the waywe think can result in positive changes in the way we act and feel.
  18. Hypnosis
    A deepstate of relaxation where an individual is more susceptible to suggestions
  19. Role playing
    Theory that explains hypnotic events in terms of the person’sability to act as though he or she was not hypnotized. EXP. People can lierigid between 2 chairs whether they are hypnotized or not.
  20. REM
    Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements linked todreaming.
  21. Alcohol
    Depressant. Slowing the activity of CNS. Relaxant, anxiety,depression, loneliness, many negative effects, lowers inhibitions.
  22. Morphemes
    & phonemes
    Morpheme-smallest significant unit of speech that conveys meaning.Phonemes-minimalunits of speech, create differences in speech production and reception.
  23. Cognition
    the processes of reasoning, thoughts, attitudes and memories.
  24. Prototypes
    Good examples in a category.
  25. Functional
    in Gestalt theory, perceiving an object as having only onealready established or associated use; an inability to identify a new use.
  26. Availability
    a rule ofthumb used to make decisions about frequencies of events based on how easilyrelevant examples can be remembered a cognitive short cut.
  27. IQ
    Intelligence quotient-calculated by dividing mental age andchronological age(multiply by 100 to get whole number), in order to comparemental age of a child and chronological age.
  28. Spearmans
    focused on intelligence research;proposing the theoretical underlying general factor (g) of intelligence, and statistics; establishing Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and factoranalysis.
  29. Stress
    The demand is made on an organism to adapt. Eustress-healthfulstress.
  30. General
    Adaptation Syndrome
    Selye- group of bodily changes that occur in 3 stages- alarmreaction, resistance stage, exhaustion stage. These changes mobilize the bodyfor action and can eventually wear out the body.
  31. General
    Adaptation Syndrome
    Selye- group of bodily changes that occur in 3 stages- alarmreaction, resistance stage, exhaustion stage. These changes mobilize the bodyfor action and can eventually wear out the body.
  32. Cognitive
    devised by Lazarus, stating that our cognitive appraisal of asituation in crucial in experiencing emotions.
  33. Type A
    a set of personality characteristics,including a sense of competitiveness, hostility, a constant sense of timepressure and impatience, which result in an increased risk of coronary heartdisease.
  34. Behaviorist, nativist,
    interactionist theories
    Behaviorist-The school of psychology founded on the premise that behavior ismeasurable and can be changed through the application of various behavioralprinciples.Nativist-that aspects of cognitive processes andbehaviour are innate.Interactionist-mind and body affect eachother