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What are the 3 moods in spanish?
What are the 5 conditions expressed with subjunctive
- 1. Doubt, denial, disbelief
- 2. volition (will)
- 3. emotion
- 4. unreality
- 5. conjunctions
used with doubt, denial, disbelief
- dudar: doubt
- negar: denial
- no creer: disbelief
used with volition (will, decision making)
- aconsejar: advise
- decir: to say, tell
- desear: to wish
- mandar: to send, order
- necesitar: to need
- pedir (i,i) : to ask for, to order
- querer: to want
- recomendar (ie): to recommend
- sugerir (ie,i): to suggest
- preferir (ie): to prefer
used with emotion
- temer: to fear
- esperar: to wait for, hope
- alegrarse(de): to be glad
- sentir(se) (ie,i): to feel, regret
- amar: to love
used with indefiniteness and nonexistence
used when the main clause refers to something or someone that is indefinite, unspecified, hypothetical, or nonexistent
examples of indefiniteness and nonexistence
- ¿Hay alguna excursión que incluya cena?
- Is there any tour that includes supper? (indefinite)
- No, no hay ninguna que la incluya.
- No, there is not any that includes it. (nonexistence)
- Estamos buscando un restaurante donde sirvan comida italiana. (unspecified)
- (We are looking for a restaurant where they serve italian food)
used with conjunctions after
- subjunctive is used AFTER conjunctions of time when the clause refers to something that has not taken place or a command
- cuando (when)
- hasta que (until)
- tan pronto como, en cuanto (as soon as)
- No, vamos a esperar hasta que venga Eva.
- (No, we're going to wait until Eva comes)
- Bueno, llámeme en cuanto llegue.
- (ok, call me as soon as she arrives)
used with conjunctions always
- if conjunction implies uncertainty or condition it is always followed by subjunctive
- a menos que: unless
- antes de que: before
- en caso de que: in case
- con tal (de) que: provided that
- para que: in order that, so that
- sin que: without
What are the conditions used with indicative?
- obvious qualities
what tenses does indicative use?
- many tenses including
- present (simple and present perfect)
- past (preterite, imperfect)
what is imperative?
how do formal commands work?
- ud. and uds. are formed by dropping the -o from the first person singular present indicative tense and adding -e and -en for -ar verbs and -a and -an for -er and -ir verbs
- hablar → yo hablo → hable or hablen
irregular verbs in command form
- dar: dé and den
- estar: esté and estén
- ser: sea and sean
- ir: vaya and vayan
where are object pronouns placed in regards to affirmative and negative commands?
- affirmative: object pronouns placed after the verb
- negative: object pronouns placed in front of the verb
how do familiar commands work?
- affirmative familiar commands in the tú form have the same form as the third-person singular of present indicative
- ex: pedir → él pide→ pide
verbs with irregular affirmative command for the tú form
- decir: di
- hacer: haz
- ir: ve
- poner: pon
- salir: sal
- ser: sé
- tener: ten
- venir: ven
negative commands of tú use
- the corresponding forms of the present subjunctive
- salir→ no salgas